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l^e ^i^jk-^ yihoii 



SAN »»«eo 






'OSrjyos iv oSm SeXerpov, 

George Didsbury, Government Printer. 



C N T E N T S. 

Introductory . . 



ghaptp:r II. 


Animals, Customs, Etc. 



Time of Migration, Etc. 

An Esoteric Language 






HE Aryan Maori. 



"The discovery of a new world" is tlie expression 
used by a great German thinker in regard to the 
Avonderful widening of human knowledge which arose 
with the birth of Philology. To learn that many 
nations, separated by distance, by ages of strife and 
bloodshed, by differing religious creeds, and by 
ancient customs, yet had a common source of birth, 
that their forefathers spoke the same tongue, and 
sat in one council-hall, was as delightful to the man 
of pure intellect, as it was valuable to the student of 
history. New fields of thought, endless paths of 
inquiry, opened before the feet of the worker, bring- 
ing reward at every mental step, and promising 
always new delights beyond. Comparative Philology 
and Comparative Mythology are the two youngest and 
fairest daughters of Knowledge. 

The researches of these twin sisters have resulted 
in arranging the peoples of the civilized world into 
three great families : 1st, those speaking the mono- 
syllabic languages — the Chinese, Siamese, &c. ; 2nd, 
those using the Turanian or nomadic forms of speech 
(agglutinated) — the Tartars, Lapps, and others; 3rd, 


the speakers of the inflected languages of the Semitic 
and Aryan races. The Semitic comprises the Hebrew, 
Chaldean, Phoenician, Ethiopic, &c. ; the Aryan or 
Indo-European includes Sanscrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, 
Celtic, Sclavonic, and minor tongues. It is with the 
Aryan branch that this book has to do. 

North of the Himalaya Range, on the high table- 
land toward Tartary, lay the great birthplace of the 
Aryan people. INIeru is the name given to it by Hindu 
writers, who, after a thousand years of tradition, saw 
it, through the mist of poetry and legend, as a mighty 
peak, the centre of the " Jambu-dvipa,^' " the known 
world " : it was supposed to stand in the midst of the 
six other dvipas or continents, which they believed to 
comprise the whole earth. But, apart from myth, it 
is now well known that the wide plains to the east of 
the Caspian Sea were the home of a nation which was the 
mother of modern civilization : a nation of many tribes, 
but speaking one language, and having a community 
of customs and habits. They called themselves '^'^Arya," 
from a word-root, '' ar," noble, well-born — they, like 
most other communities, thinking " they were the 
people " and all outsiders barbarians."^ As years 
passed, either their pastoral lands became too narrow 
for the great increase of population, or, else, that 
wonderful spirit of enterprise and colonization which 
has always distinguished their race, prompted them 
to migrate in vast numbers from their native soil. 
Two thousand years before Christ one great wave of 
men went flowing westward into Europe, fighting 
their way through the dense forests and the deep 
morasses, crossing broad rivers, overrunning and 
absorbing the settlements of the aborigines. Thus, 

* " Seeing all things, whether Sudra or Arya." Sudra is a 
being of low caste, a vile wretch. (See Athama-Veda IV., 20, 4; 
XIX., G2, 1.) 


the Greeks, the Romans, the Celtic, tlic Slavs, and 
the Teutons had their origin ; superseding^ the 
speakers ot" the primitive langur.ges, until wc have to 
seek ill the Basque tongue of the dweller in the 
Pyrenees, or in the Arnautic speeeli of the Albanian 
mountaineer, for the old sporadic languages of Europe, 
preserved among barren ranges, whither it was not 
worth the while of the Aryan to follow and eject 

Let us return to the fountain-head, in Asia. As a 
wave had passed off westwards, so another swept 
towards the south, down through the defiles of the 
Hindu Kush. Over India, Persia, Media, Bactria spread 
the " noble people,^^ until " Aryan of the Aryans " was 
one of the proudest titles of Darius, and Persia was 
"Iran" in the East, as Ireland was "Eirin" in the West. 
This new dominion was divided into two parts, dis- 
tinguished, in course of time, by difference of language, 
one speaking the Zend, in which the Zend Avesta was 
written by Zoroaster, the other branch using the 
Sanscrit, with the Vedas for their holy book. San- 
scrit was spoken in India until about the fifteenth 
century before Christ ; but the Brahmins had made it 
a sacred language, and it was kept from the common 
people. It was, however, unwritten ; the earliest in- 
scriptions known in Devanagari (the Sanscrit character) 
are those of King Asoka, about 250 b.c. At that 
time the Sanscrit was the priestly possession, so, al- 
though the inscriptions were written in Sanscrit 
character, they are in Prakrit (common) words. The 
Sanscrit of the Vedas is very old, the first, or Rig- Veda, 
is supposed to have been composed about 2400 b.c. 
It is valuable to philologists (as will be shown par- 
ticularly further on) from its giving older forms of 
words than can be obtained from modern Sanscrit, 
and it has been used in comparison with the European 


sister-languages in a very valuable manner. Besides 
the Veclas and the Ui>anishads^ India possesses two 
great poems^ the Mahabarata and the Ramayana ; but 
they are much later than the early Vedas. 

I must impress upon my reader the necessity of 
remembering that the Aryans, who became the ruling 
and exclusive people of India, were not the original 
owners of the soil. The magnificent temples, the 
great cities, the wonderful systems of religion and 
philosophy were not the work of the first inhabitants 
of Hindustan. They were the outcome of that tribal 
intelligence, that vitality of mind and body, which 
evolved the art of Greece, the strength of Rome, the 
commerce of Britain. In the forests of Ceylon, on 
the hills of Assam, in the recesses of the Himalaya 
dwell the descendants of those savage people w^hose 
ancestors fled before the Aryan tidal- wave. These 
aborigines were called Nagas, the serpent worship- 
pers — Naga meaning great serpent. 

They were supposed, in the poetry of the later 
Sanscrit, to be demons and giants, and to inhabit a 
place called Patala; their king, Ananta, is said to 
have had a thousand hooded heads, on each of which 
was the "■ Swastika,^^ the mystic cross. They arc 
always mentioned with abhorrence as the enemies of 
gods and men. Although wo seem here to be dealing 
with fables, it is certain that there was an alioriginal 
race so called. Naga-dvipa was one of the seven 
divisions of Old India, and kings of this race ruled at 
Mathura, Padinati, &c. Nagpur is a name derived 
from Naga. They were probably a Scythic race, and 
derived their name from their deadly mode of fight- 
ing, and their worship of the serpent. There are about 
sixty thousand Nagas still living in the Naga Hills of 
Assam, India. 


I have made this brief historical sketch, concise as 
it CGiild possibly be Avrittcn, in order to present 
to the general reader a vicAV of the early relations of 
the race. I will now proceed to state certain facts, 
on which I have sncli reliance that I feel positively 
assured, if any one will take the trouble to follow my 
reasoning, he Avill share my convictions before he 
reaches the end of this small book, however incredu- 
lous he may be at the outset. 

In using the name '' Maori " I shall confine it gene- 
rally to the Maori of New Zealand, as being the type 
best known to myself; yet, in its larger sense, I in- 
clude the Maori spoken of in the following extract, 
wherein Mr. Sterndale, treating of the light-coloured 
branch of the Polynesian islanders and comparing 
them with those of New Zealand, says, ^^ Their lan- 
guage is so far identical that they readily under- 
stand one another, without the intervention of an in- 
terpreter. Their social customs are analogous ; their 
traditions and habits of thinking are the same. They 
have but one ancient name whereby they distinguisli 
themselves from the rest of humanity — Maori."^ 

I now proceed to assert — 

1. That the Maori is an Aryan. 

2. That his language and traditions prove him to 

be the descendant of a pastoral people, 
afterwards warlike and migratory. 

3. That his language has preserved, in an almost 

inconceivable purity, the speech of his 
Aryan forefathers, and compared witb 
which the Greek and Latin tongues are 
mere corruptions. 

' South Sea Islands Eeport, N.Z. Government, 28tla March, 1884. 


4. That this language has embalmed the memory 
of animals, implements, &c., the actual 
sight of which has been lost to the Maori 
for centuries. 

1. That he left India about four thousand years 


2. That he has been in New Zealand almost as 

long as that time. 

To prove these bold assertions is my task in the 
following chapters. 




We must remember that, although Sanscrit has been 
proved to be the dearest and fairest of all the chil- 
dren of the Aryan tongue, yet she herself is not the 
mother of our European languages. The migrating 
tribes had left centuries before what we call Sanscrit 
had grown to maturity, and those tribes took with 
them, in many cases, forms of speech more closely 
allied to the archaic type than any Sanscrit has now 
to show. Let me give an example. The Sanscrit 
word for dog is svan, or 9van ; that the " c '' was not 
originally pronounced as if written with the cedilla, 
making the sibillant " s " sound, is proved by the 
European paronyms (parallel words) . In Latin, it is 
canis^ once kanis; in Greek it is kuon. So, with pi^, 
Aryan for sharp; Greek, pikros ; English, pike, &c. In 
the early forms of all languages a paucity of letters 
is observable. I will treat of this in regard to the 
Maori further on ; but it is certain that letters, repre- 
senting shades of sound, grow with civilization. I do 
not include the Chinese variety of languages, where 
each letter represents a word ; but I mean the tone- 
letter only. The reason Comparative Philology is such 
a modern birth is that of old this was not understood, 
and the laws of transference have only lately been laid 
down. The laws need study and attention to master, 
the results appear doubtful to those who have not 
passed the initiation, but certain to those who have 


done so : every word has its proper parentage^ nor is it 
evolved from " no"svliere." Who could believe^ on the 
word of any one but Miiller, that " aujourd'hui " — 
French for " to-day " -^^ contained the Latin word 
" dies ^^ twice ? Hew different oinos,^ Greek for 
" wine/^ looks from the Latin vinum ; yet the dis- 
covery of a dialect of Greek^ the jEolic^ using a 
letter (the digamma) with the sound of F made com- 
parison easy : oinos or oinon^ Foinon^, vinum. 

These examples are as shadows of what the student 
of European tongues must look for. My task is an 
easier and more delightful one : the reader will be 
able to follow the derivations with ease and pleasure. 
But he must remember that Maori is a language only 
written down about forty years ago^ this writing being 
done by Englishmen, with whom Maori was not 
the mother-tongue, and who laboured under other 
disadvantages. Here let me pause one moment and, 
as the humblest follower of science, thank those 
missionaries and others who have preserved the 
language even as it is — the faithfulness and beauty of 
their work will be a heritage for their descendants. 

It does not follow, because two peoples have (even 
many) words in common, that they are closely con- 
nected by descent. The English are absorbing every- 
day words from other languages, such as the French 
words ^'^chaperon,^^ ^n3adinage,"&c. At one time, under 
the pressure of the Norman Conquest, they received 
many words. But, at its heart, the national tongue 
remained unchanged. The words man, woman, sun, 
moon, star, God, wife, &c., never became confused 

* I must here apologize to tho classical reader for writing my 
Greek words in the Latin letters, making them hard to recognize. 
But, alas, our Parnassian "fount" of Greek letters runs exceed- 
ing small. 


with liomrac, fcmmc, soleil, lunc, ctoilc, Dicu, fcmmc ; 
had they done so it would have bceu merely a transfer 
from one Aryan tongue to another. But, if there be 
two nations all whose vital words come of the same 
stock, then there arc two nations whose ancestors 
were brothers. 

With this brief necessary digression, I will introduce 
the reader to two sister-tongues. To those wholly 
unacquainted with the Maori language, I would say 
that the following simple rules must be regarded : 
The vowels are to be pronounced as in French, thus : 
" Mere," like the English " Mary ; " " Kati," as if 
written Kah-tee; and the ^^u" like'^oo," as ^^patua," 
like pa-too-ah. Next, that "^ whaka,'^ prefixed to a 
word, is causative, thus : takoto, to lie down ; whakata- 
koto, to lay down ; haere (the " ae " like English 
"eye"), to go or come; whakahaere, to cause to go. 
Lastly, that " ng " and " k " are interchangeable in 
different dialects, thus : tangata and takata, Kainga 
and Kaika, Waitangi and Waitaki are similar. 

The abbreviations used are — (Sb.) for Sanscrit, (Gr.) for Greek, 
(Lat.) for Latin, (M.) for Maori, (Eng.) for English, (of.) for confero, 
compare, &c., (par.) for paronym — parallel word in another lan- 
guage, (M. pr.) Maori pronunciation. 

(Sk.) Tu, to grow, increase : (M. pr.) tu. 
(M.) T'wpu, to grow. 

Ka/wa, full-grown. 

yidLtutu, to grow healthy. 

Tutu, to assemble. 

Whaka-^?/pu, to nourish. 

Twruki, to grow up in addition (as a, 

sucker of a tree). 
Tvhe2L, overgrown. 


'(Sk.) dhi, to shine : (M. pr.) hi. 
(M.) Hihi, a ray of the sun. 
Hiko, to begin to shine. 
Hiko, distant lightning. 
Hinatore, to twinkle. 
Ihi, the dawn. 
Hika, to rub sticks for fire. 
Ihi-ihi, a ray of the sun. 

'(Sk.) Vevi, to obtain : (M. pr.) whiwhi. 
(M.) Whhvhi, to receive. 
A-iohi, to embrace. 
Awhina, to benefit. 
H&tvhe, to surround. 
E,awAe, to grasp, seize. 
Tsiwhi, food. 

i(Sk.) Pa, to protect : (M. pr.) pa. (Gr.) Pagos, a 
hill ; (Lat.) pagus, a village ; (Hindu) pur, 
a town, as Nagpur, &c. ; (Hindu) pahar, a 
(M.) Pa, a fortified town. 

Papa, a father. 

Pahao, to enclose. 

P«ra, bravery. 

Papain, a bulwark. 

Pckuku, to screen from the wind. 

Pae, to surround with a border. 

P«re, to ward off. 

lR:ipa, a boundary. 

Taupa, fat covering the intestines. 

Kau^«re_, to ward off. 

Kq^ani, to enclose. 

Tuparn, to thatch. 

Paretua, a j)ad under a load. 

Ko/>«ki, the envelope. 
And many others. 


(Sk.) Var, Avatcr : (AT. i)r.) -wa. (German) wasacr ; 
(Euf^.) irdtvv and wet. Latin aii'l Greek 
from another root. 
(M.) Wai, water. 
Awa, a river. 
Aivha, rain. 
Wave, saliva. 
Kakawa, sweat. 
^civa, to float. 
War'x, a Avatery potato. 
}Loioa, neap-tide. 

(Sk.) Bhu, to be : -^ (M. pr.) pu. (Gr.) phuo ; (Lat.) 
fuo; (cf., Gr.) pneuma. 
(M.) Pu, a tribe. 
Pu, to blow. 
Pudiki, to come forth. 
Puhipuhi, growing- in bunehes. 
Pupu\\\, to swell. 
^^pu, pregnant. 
Pwkaliu, abundant, 
Pukvi, the affeetions. 
Punsi, a spring. 
PMntia, young of animals. 
PuQ., seed. 
Pursipura, seed. 
Hapu, a sub-tribe. 
Wapu, to plant, 
Vapua., fruitful. 
Tupidii, to nurse. 
Tujma, a spirit. 

Ti^JMna^ an ancestor (producer) . 
And many others. 

* The first sense of "to be " is to breathe or blow, the second 
that of increase, as (Gr.) phuo. 


(Sk.) Vri, to clioose : (M. pr.) wiri. 

(M.) Whiriwhiri, to select_, choose. 
K.oivhiri, to select. 

(Sk.) Ayas, the dawn : (M. pr.) a. (Gr.) Eos and 
aos ; (Lat.) eos, dawn. 
(M.) Ao, the dawn. 

Mareeao, the dawn. 
Jlaeata, the dawn. 

(Sk.) Raj, to shine : (M. pr.) ra. 

(M.) Ra, the sun (common to all ancient peoples) . 
i?ama, a torch. 
Rangi, the heavens. 
Tira, the ray. 

i?Gwhiti^ the east (sun-rising). 
Raraipa, to flash forth. 
Ratai^ata, red-hot. 
Kwa, red, brilliant . 
Tar a, rays. 
i?«umati, summer. 
And many others. 

(Sk.) Agni, fire : the god of fire. (Lat.) ignis ; 
(Eng.) ignite. 
(M.) AM, fire — sacred, of a chief. (See next 

(Sk.) Kapila, a certain holy personage : (M. pr.) 

" Kapila, a celebrated anchoret 

The great reverence in which Kapila was held 
may be presumed from the fact that he is 
sometimes considered as an incarnation of 
the god Agni, or fire."^ 

* Bhagavad-Gita : (Thomsou), p. 137. 


(Sk.) Kapila — continued. 

Compare kapura and mapura^ Maori 
words I'or common cooking- fire, with ahi, 
the fire of a chief. Also the Greek pur — fire 
and English fire and pyre, with ignis and 

This is confirmed in the most extraordinary 
• manner by the next. 

(Sk.) Ahi-s, the serpent : (M. pr.) ahi. (Gr.) ophis ; 
(Lat.) anguis. (This is agni, with the " ng " 
turned round to " gn.") 

After the Aryans had been some time in 
India, the dread and hatred they felt for the 
nagas (great serpents), worshipped by their 
foes, gradually changed first into respect 
then into worship. Agni became at last the 
great red serpent Ahi (our exact word), the 
demon of drought, who licked up the waters 
■with his tongue of flame. One of his names 
was Surya, which the Maoris call Uira, the 

(Sk.) Karali, terrible : (M. pr.) karari, or ngarari. 
(M.) Ngarara, the rayed or spined naga. 

In Vedic days karali was one of the seven 
tongues of Agni (fire). Here is the '^^tapu" 
again. On a very old talisman Agni is re- 
presented with a crown of fire on his head, 
half the rays being flame and half lizards 
the old footed snake) . 

(Sk.) Pat, to fall: (M. pr.) pat (a).. 
(M.) Patapata, falling in drops. 
ILopata, dew. 


fSk.) Vash, an opening : (M. pr.) waha. 
(M.) Waha, the mouth. 

'K.mvaha, the doorway. 
TFahajyn, the mouth of a river. 

(Sk.) Ar, noble : (M. pr.) A. 
(M.) ^riki, a chief. 

(Sk.) Rikshi (Veclic spelling)^ a priest: (M. pr. riki. 

(M.) Ariki, a noble priest or sacred person^ from 

ar and rikshi. 

The seven Eikshis (modern, Rishi) were 

those to whom the sacred Vedas were revealed. 

They were deified_, and became the seven stars 

in the northern constellation of the Great 

Bear. Hence the Maori words for '^ north" — 

tuariki and raki. 

(Sk.) Ma, to measure: (M. pr.) ma. (Lat.) machinari; 
(Eng.) make. 
(M.) Mama, light. 

Taumaha, heavy. 

Maro, a fathom. 

ikf fttake, to inspect. 

Tnma, an odd number. 

ikfatau, to know. 
From this root (ma, to measure, to set 
in order) all philologists are agreed in saying 
that matar and matri, the Sanscrit words for 
mother, have been obtained. A [mother is 
one who " sets in order " (besides that of 
suckling — mamma;), and this is the origin of 
the Maori word matua, a parent — one who 
arranges affairs. 


(Sk.) Ma, the moon (tlmc-mcasiircr) : (M. pr.) ma. 
(M.) Marama, the moon. 

This is compounded of ma, tlie moon, and 
rama, light, llama and Krislma (black) — 
light and darkness — were the twin sons of 
Aditi, the Infinite-Mother. llama is often 
called llama-Chandra, Chandra being another 
Sanscrit name for moon. 

(Sk.) Aditi (later Athiti) : (M. pr.) atiti. 

Aditi was the Ineffable and Incomprehen- 
sible Parent (Nature) . Only known in Maori 
by atiti, to stray, to wander. 

(Sk.) Gone, an angle : (M. pr.) koni. (Gr.) gonia„ 
an. angle ; (Lat.) angulus. 
(M.) Kokonga, an angle. 

Konae, a turning in a, path. 
Konaketa,ng&, a corner. 
Konana, slanting. 
iiTo^oni, crooked. 
Konnmi, to fold. 

(Sk.) Tan, to stretch out, extend: (M, pr.) tan (a). 
(Lat.) tendo ; (Gr.) tanuo. 
(M.) Tango, to take (extend hand). 
Tatango, to snatch. 
Tanu, to plant (extend cultivation). 
Taniwha., a water-monster. 
Tangana, stragglers. 
Zizwgara, loose. 

(Sk.) Bil, to split, divide: (M. pr.) pir(a). 
(M.) Pir ahu and piraksm, firewood. 
Pir&rsL, to be divided. 


(Sk.) Guha, secret : (M. pr.) kuha. 
(M.) Kuhu, to conceal. 

{Sk.) (^0, to sharpen : (M. pr.) ko. (Lat.) cos, a 
(M.) Kg\, sharp, 

iToinga, point or edge, 

iCoiata, to throw up a new shoot. 

Koii, to cut. 

(Sk.) Gha-s, to eat : (M. pr.) ka. 
(M.) Kamxx, to eat. 
Kame, to eat, 
Kai, to eat (with a hundred compound 

words) . 
Kamiivi, cooking-shed. 
iTauta, cooking-shed. 
Hakari, a feast. 

Henf/a, food for a working party. 
Kanga, maize. 
Kao, dried kumara. 
Ta?>2aoku, cooked. 
Whanged, to feed. 

(Sk.) Manas, the heart or mind : (M. pr.) mana. 
(M.) Mano, the heart. 

Manayfdi, the heart (with its compound 

words) . 
Maunoa, a pet, fondling. 
Manako, to set one's heart on. 
Minamina, desire. 
Kmene, desire. 
Mana, a Divine emanation. 
This last is a very important word; some 
of the best Maori scholars^" have heen unable 

* See " Old New Zealand," by Judge Maning. 


(Sk.) Manas — continued. 

to define it exactly, but it is, in its original 
meaning, mind, intelligence. It was after- 
wards, in India, used as " the subtle force of 
the creative power of Brahma;" thence it 
dropped down to the meaning of magic. The 
Maoris have kept its real sense better. 

(Sk.) Jata-vedas, fire: (M. pr.) ata-wera. 

Ata, in Maori, is the reflection of light. It 
appears as ata, reflected light ; ata marama, 
moonlight ; whaka-a/a, a mirror ; and a/arau, 
the moon. It possessed, however, another sense 
in the Vedas, meaning " possessing all things, 
knowing all things." " The statement that 
the Vedas were milked out from fire, air, and 
the sun "* explains the connection of ata and 
wera (M.) (veda), heat or warmth. 

(Sk.) Ka-s, to shine : (M. pr.) ka. 

(M.) HiA'«, to kindle fire (by rubbing sticks) . 
Ka, to be lighted. 
Kaka, red-hot. 
iTanaku, fire, 
ifanapa, bright, 
ifanapu, lightning. 
iTatore, glimmering. 

ifflwainga, stars which precede the dawn. 
And others. 

(Sk.) Kesha, hairy: (M. pr.) keha; only found once, 
and in composition. 
(M.) Ma-AreArAw, light-haired. 

* Hindi; Clas. Die. 


(Sk.) Ha, to leave : (M. pr.) ha. 
(M.) Haere, to go. 
Haha, to seek. 
Ha^a, gone by. 
^«painga, to start. 
Hav^he, to go round. 
Ko.'^cr, parting instructions. 

(Sk.) Ri, to go : (M. pr.) ri. 
(M.) Haere, to go. 
Riro, gone. 
Hori, to be gone by. 
JLoriri, to sail together. 
JLori, to move. 
'Keri, to rush violently. 
Yiri, to skulk off. 
Rinn, to be gone. 
Jrlaereei'e, to go about. 

(Sk.) Pori-dhi, a ledge, fence, enclosure : (M. pr,) 
(M.) Pardkiri, innermost fence of a pa. 

(Sk.) Pari-dha, to encompass, vrrap round : (M. pr.) 
(M.) Paraharalui, lioop-iron, or anything 

Whiti paruharalia, a flat cord. 
Paraharaha, any tool of thin iron. 

(Sk.) Pari-tas, around about, all round: (M. pr.) 
(]\r.) Porotaka, round. 


(Slv.) Pari-tushita, rouudj the sky (agtronomically) : 
(M. pr.) pfirit()w]ut(a). 
(M.) Porowhiiu, the circle. 

(Sk.) Dhu, to shake : (M. pr.) ru. 
(M.) Ru, to rumble. 
Ruru, to shake. 
Ru, an earthquake. 
Ha?'M?'Mj to rumble. 
Horii, to snort. 
Mun«, to rub. 
'Paruru, to rub tog-ether. 
Tarit7'2i, to shake. 
Ru7'utiike, shivering. 
Ngai-ue, to shake. 
And many others. 

(Sk.) Plavaka, a ship : (M. pr.) parawaka. (Gr.) 
ploion, a ship. 
(M.) Waka, a canoe, and its compounds. Al- 
luded to afterwards more fully. 

(Sk.) Viir, to cover, clotlie : (i\[. pr.) war(e). 
(M.y Whare, a house. 

Wharewvavi,- eookiug-shed . 

Whar\k\, covered with a carpet or mat. 

(Sk.) Do, to cut : (]\I. pr.) ro. 

(M.) Wvivo, to chop smooth with an adze. 
Horo, a landslip. 
Whaka-?"ro, to carve. 
Tarotaro, to cut one's hair, 
Hapc?-Oj to cut off. 


(Sk.) Hi, to grow : (M. pr.) bi. 
(M.) Villi, to grow. 

yidihiii, to spring iip. 

Sk.) Maha, great : (]M. pr.) malia. 
(M.) Maha, many. 

Mala, abundance. 

(Sk.) Kuyva, a narration: (M. pr.) kewa or kawa. 
(M.) Kaiavhavi, to recite old legends. 
Kaaiva'i, pedigree^ lineage. 

From tliis word comes " KaAvi^" the 
sacred language of the priests of Java. 

(Sk.) Sidh, to be fulfilled_, perfected: (M. pr.) bir(a). 
(M.) '\Vbaka-7«V«Ai/Y/_, to extol one^s-self^ claim 

(Sk.) Deva, a deity : (M. in\) rewa. 

(M.) Ahwreiva, a sbrine^ boly place. 
'MvLi'ewa, elevated, high up. 
Voreicarewa, mad. 
^diVewa, raised on bigli. 
Rciva, elevated. • 

(Sk.) Pu, to purify : (M. pr.) pu. 

(M.) Pure, a ceremony for removing the " tapii." 
}ie\pu, just, proper. 
Pwataatu^ clear. 
Pwroto^ clear, 
Tupu, genuine. 

^Sk.) Twachtrei, the tbunder-god. 
(M.) A^^hatitiri_, thunder. 


(Sk.) G((fi, to hide : (M. pr.) ku. 
(M.) Kn\\\\, to hide. 
Kamkum, dark. 
Koroi)u^M, to hide. 
Vnku, secretly. 

(Sk.) Ira, water : (M. pr.) ira. 

(M.) I run, to baptise — part of the Maori religion, 
Ira was afterwards the goddess of chil- 
dren, as Ida (in India), and was the wife of 
Mann — the first man — our New Zealand 

* (Sk.) /u7, to know : (M. pr.) kit(c). (Lat.) scire, tO' 

(M.) Kite, to see, know, or perceive (Williams). 
"\YhakaA'?7e, to reveal. 

(Sk.) Dai, to protect : (]\I. pr.) rai. 
(M.) Krai, to ward off. 
Mar«e, an enclosure. 
Raihi, a small enclosure. 

(Sk.) Hari, the name of a deity : (M. pr.) hari. 
This was a name applied ^ in India^ to 
different gods, but afterwards only to Vishnu. 
One of Vishnu's titles is Sarngi-pani — 
"bearing the bow." 
(]M.) Haere, a spirit supj)osed to reside in frag- 
mentary rainbows or detached clouds 
(Williams's N. Z. Die.) . 

(Sk.) Rodi, a tear : (M. pr.) rori. (Modern Hindu) roi, 
(M.) /?oi-mata, a tear. 


(Sk.) Tij, to sharpen : (M. pr.) ti. (Gr.) stizo. 
(M.) Tio, sharpj piercing. 
Tia, a peg or stake. 
Titi,a pin or peg. 
Thou, pointed stick used as a fork. 

(Sk.) Vri, to turn: (M. pr.) w(i)ri. (Lat.) vertex. 
(M.) TViri, an auger, gimlet. 
Wiri, to bore. 
Whviktiivii'i, to tvv'ist. 
Koiriiri, to writhe. 

(Sk.) Ap, to obtain^ get: (M. pr.) ap(a). 
(M.) ^ajA, to clutch. 
Apo, to grasp. 
Hapsii, to carry. 
Tapae, to present. 
Tapiki, to lay hold of. 

(Sk.) Pi'i, to join together: (M. pr.) p(i)ri. 
(M.) Piri, to stick. 

Pipiri, come to close quarters. 
P/rf hongOj keep close. 
^Si\\2nri, walk arm in arm.. 

(Sk.) Pinga, dark : (M. pr.) pinga. 
(M.) Patigo, black or dark. 
PaJca, scorched. 

(Sk.) Bhalra, terrible : (M. pr.) paira. 
(M.) Pairi, afraid. And next — 

(Sk.) Bhuta, a ghost^ a ghoul : (M. pr.) puta. 
(M.) Patv])n.Gxc, a spirit^ goblin. 


(Sk.) Nar, to pcrisli : (M. pr.) iiak(u). (Lat.) uocorc, 
to hurt. 

(M.) Nak\i-nak\i, to reduce to fragments. 
Nakn, to scratch. 
NonoJce, to struggle together. 

(Sk.) Karbure, sjiotted : (M. pr.) kapure. 
(M.) Pure, in spots or patches. 

Purei, isolated tufts of grass. 

Ojmre, spotted with patches of colour. 

(Sk.) Sate, virtuous : (M. pr.) hate^ or ate. 

(M.) Ate, heart (poetically) ; the liver really, as 
among the Romans. 
Ata, true. 

-4^aahua, good, pleasant. 
AtuvfhvA, showing kindness. 
At Sima,i, liberal. 

(Sk.) Mri, to die: (M. pr.) m(o)ri, to die. (Lat.) 
morsj morioi, &c. 
(M.) Morimori, shorn of branches. 
Mare, a cough. 

Whaka-^no^/iori, to commit suicide. 
Moremorcu^Q., the end. 

(Sk.) Martta, to die : (M. pr.) mata. 
(M.) Mate, to die. 

Mata, medium of communication with a 

MataX'iu, afraid. 
M«/eroto, abortion. 
Mati'o., a spear, 
ilfc^akite, to practice divination. 



(Sk.) Dhri, to liolcl : (M. pr.) ri. 
(M.) Piipur?, to hold. 

i?iaka^ to strain^ put forth strength. 
RiriwSii, net stakes in bed of river. 
i?iro_, to be obtained. 
Ror?, to bind. 
Ta?*?'^ a noose. 

(Sk.) Baddha, bound, confined : (M. pr.) para. 
(M.) Par an, slavery. 
Par«kau, a slave. 
Paravivi, dark in colour. 

So the Maoris had " niggers '' once — 
" the offspring of bondage." 

(Sk.) Ve, to weave : (M. j)r.) we, or whe. 
(M.) Whenn, the warp of cloth. 
Whivi, to plait. 

WhitsM, flax prepared for weaving. 
Whiwhi, to be entangled. 
TsLkaivhe, circuitous. 
Whakaivhiivhi, to wind round. 
WheliQ.ivheka,, a garment. 

Erye and Whenna have a mystical and 
wonderful meaning in their double connection : 
an allusion to Nature weaving at the loom of 
the world. (See Goethe's Faust.) 

(Sk.) As, to breathe ; asu, vital breath : (M. pr.) a 
and ahu. 
(M.) Wliaka-ffe«ea, to pant for breath. 
Ai, to beget, procreate. 
Whaka-«^?<a, to form, fashion. 
Akua, pregnant. 

An-ahi, smoke (literally, "fire-breath"). 
Hau, the wind. 


(Sk.) Slv, to sew : {M. pr.) liiii, or tiii. (Lat.) 
Sucre, to sew. 
(M.) Tui, to sew. 
Tui, a string. 
Kotui, to lace up. 

(Sk.) Nahman, a uarae : (jM. pr.) naman(a). (Gr.) 
onoma ; (Lat.) nomcu. 
(M.) Ingoa, a name. 

This is a usefiil comparative, unlike as it 
looks at first sight. All primitive peoples re- 
joice in ng, and mb, and nk, and that class 
of sounds, difficult for civilized tongues to 
* speak. But the European Aryans seem to 
have written their ng as gn; that nomen 
(Lat.) was once gnomen is proved by co- 
gnomen; that the Greek onoma had the g sound 
is shown in gignosco. Thus the Maori ingoa 
is ignoa only, and agrees with the European 
form. This is shown, perhaps better, in (M.) 
ngau, to bite ; it is just the English gnaw, 
with the letters turned. (M.) kauae, the 
jaw, was once spoken as ngauae, the gnaw-er. 

(Sk.) Hve, to call : (M. pr.) hue. 
(]M.) Hu^, to name. 

Hid, to congregate. 

(Sk.) Kharu, desire : (M. pr.) karu. 

(M.) ifa/'e-a-roto, object of passionate affection, 

(Sk.) Ri, a foe : (M. pr.) ri. 
(M.) Riri, to be angry. 
Hoa-rw7, an enemv. 


(Sk.) Pi, to drink : (M. pr.) pi. (Gr.) pino, I drink; 
pinon, beer ; (Lat.) bibo,. I drink. 
(M.) Inn, to drink. 

I\.oj)i\\a, a jDool of water. 

Kopiro, to duck tke head under water. 

I^opiro, steeped in water. 

linn, to drink frequently. 

This last word shows that i and not pi is 
the real root. 

(Sk.) Ca, to cut : (M. pr.) ka. (Lat.) Sicani, a tribe 
named from their being reapers ; the sickle 
has a fine saw-edge. 
(M.) Kani, a saw. 

Kakano, the grain of wood. 

(Sk.) Hane, to kill : (M. pr.) hane. 

(M.) Hani, a weapon (like taiaha). 
Hannxni, to be swallowed up. 
Whaka-7i«/2«j to shake weapons in defiance. 

(Sk.) Harita-s, green : (M. pr.) harita. 
(M.) Kakariki, a green paroquet. 
K-okariki, a green lizard. 

Although perhaps even a IMaori might 
translate Kaka-riki as " little parrot/^ that 
this was not the origin of the word is proved 
by its being applied also to the lizard. That 
the lizard has not been called kak-ariki in 
any sense of being tapu to the priest and 
gods is shown by the parrot being similarly 
named. I think the bird was once kak«r«7ff, 
the green cock or crow — (Sk.) kaka. The rep- 
tile was ngakarita^ the green snake or lizard 


(Sk.) Mara, a destroyer : (M, pr.) mara. 
(M.) Muramara, a chip, splinter. 
Marara, scattered. 
Marahcvche, trouble. 
Marcvc, to fall. 
Mariiinnn, Avorthless. 

(Sk.) iV«i/»', a weaver : (M. pr.) iiapi. (Gr.) nape, 
licnip ; (l^ng.) nap (of cloth) . 
(M.) Nape, to weave. 

(Sk.) A/iffa, the body, the form : (M. pr.) anga. 
(M.) Anga, the aspect. 

Anganga, the aspect. 

Angaanga, the skull (of animals, generally) . 

(Sk.) Sic, to nurse: (M. pr.) hik(i). 
(M.) Hiki, to carry in the arms. 

There are many points of resemblance in the 
grammars of Sanscrit and of Maori, such as both 
possessing the dual number as well as singular and 
plural, also the formation of comparatives in adjec- 
tives, &c. Many words in the sister Aryan lan- 
guages have close resemblance in the Maori form, 
such as the — 







sami ; (Gr.) hcmi 


hemauga (basket half 


a] ; (Gr.) ago 


a wing 

to go or drive 


a (to drive) 
kakara (a sweet 


gaura ; (Gr.) kuros 

yellow, splendid 
to melt 

kura (red) 

nana (Vcdic) 


nana (a nurse) 


to weave, withes 

vvi-wi (rushes) 







a star 

tawera (the evening 



hara (a sin) 


a crackling fire 

mumura (blaze) 


the face 

moko (tattooed face) 





to ascend 

ara (to rise up) 


a water-jar 

papapa (a calabash) 


to boast 



palm of hand 

kapu (hollow of hand) 


the owl 



girth, cord 

kahaki (strap for load) 


to laugh 




mumuhau (an eddy of 



mu (game of draughts) 

pheru * 

a jackal 

pero (a dog) 


a flower 



to destroy, kill 

puta (a battle-field) 


to emit 

purehua (to emit gas). 












rita (correct) 


be it so 

ae (yes) 





a spoon, shovel 

kotari (a sieve) 



kopiro (stinking 


the head 



the head 



even, unto 

ake (onwards) 

gyne (Sk.) jani 

a woman 



a wife 

hoa (wahino). 






opu (a company of 
volunteer workers) 


a butterfly 



to cling 

here (to bind) 



ia (he or she). 

*The really prized native dog was "kuri"— the other name, 
perhaps for a wild species, was peropero. (The Sanscrit " ph " is 
not pronounced as " f.") 




Knowing tliat the Maoris were strangers to tlie sigtt 
of certain animals until these were introduced by the 
Europeans, I resolved to try and find if there was 
any proof in the verbal composition by which I could 
trace if they had once been familiar with them. As 
an example of what I mean we will take the English 
word '' footman." It is now used for a male servant 
in the house. Two centuries ago, however, the foot- 
man was the servant who " ran on foot " beside his 
master's carriage. The word thus bears in its com- 
position a reference to his past duty. It may happen 
that one day all the lions will be extinct, and that our 
posterity may never be able to look at a living lion ; 
but, as long as the phrase " lion-hearted " remains in 
the language, men will know that there once were 
lions, and that we knew something of their attri- 
butes. These are what, for convenience' sake, I will 
call " graft-words," because they are grafted into the 
composition of other words. It was thus I resolved 
to look in the Maori vocabulary to try and find if 
there was any sign of words referring to animals, &c., 
of which we supposed them ignorant until the Euro- 
peans came. The cow, the horse, sheep, goat, frog, 
&c., were unknown. New Zealand is especially well 
situated for this variety of search, its isolated position 
making it almost impossible that the inhabitants should 
have kept the memory fresh concerning lost animals 
by intercourse with neighbouring peoples. 


I took the frog as my first subject. There was no 
Maori word for it^ nor an Aryan word, until I tried 

(Sk.) Bheki, the frog. He was — 
Peke, leaping over. 

Pepeke, drawing up his arms and legs. 
^upeke, jumping up. 
Wupeke, bending his arms and legs. 
Peki, chirping or twittering. 
Peke, all gone, without excei^tion. 

This was the frog — there could be no doubt of it. 
Encouraged by this, I tried " the cow." I found 
kavpare, to turn in a diiferent direction, and was 
struck by its resemblance to (Sk.) go-pala, a herds- 
man. I looked at kahu, the surface, and found it 
illustrated by the example, " kahu o te rangi." At 
once I recognized the old familiar expression, " Cow of 
heaven," a sentence to be met with in every work 
concerning the Aryans. Let me quote one extract : 
" Since the chief wealth of the Aryans was in their 
cattle, each man would do his utmost to increase the 
number of his flocks and herds. The cow was the 
creature most prized, for her milk fed his household, 
and every calf that was born made him richer. . . . 
The heaven was to the Aryan a great plain over which 
roamed bulls and cows, for such the clouds seemed to 
liim to be. Just as the cow yielded him milk, so 
those cows of heaven dropped upon the earth rain and 
dew, heaven's milk.""^ 

The (Sk.) gau, the cow, and the (Gr.) ge, the earth_, 
come from the same root. The earth was the great 

* " Childhood of Religions."— (E. Clodd.) 


cow-raothcr of a,ll. In the Veda, Usbas, tlio dawn, is 
described as " the mother of cows/' 

The cow was — 

Kahni, in herds. 

Kahurangi, unsettled {'' sky-cow," moving- about 
like clouds). 

Kakahu, clothes for him ; his dress was leather."^' 

Kauhoa, a litter [" cow-friend") : so they used 
cattle to ride on. 

Kahnpapa, a bridge. A bridge was a "flat cow," 
on which he crossed streams. 

Kauika, it lay in a heap. 

Kauruki, smoke. The word here is " cow-dung ;" 
so they once used the dried dung for fuel, as 
is done everywhere by pastoral tribes now. 

Mata-kautete. It gave him the shape of his 
weapon — " sharp teeth of flint lashed firmly 
to a piece of wood." — (Williams.) This was 
the " cow-titty," from whakatete, to milk.f 

I will now use the Greek or Latin paronyms 
instead of the Sanscrit. The Western people seem 
to have kept the terms used for out-doors life best. 

The Maoris once knew the bull by a word like 
the Latin Taurus, a bull. 

Tar a, he had courage. 
Whaka^«ra, he challenged. 
Tarahono, he lay in a heap. 
Tararau, he made a loud noise. • 
Tararua, he had two points or peaks (horns) . 
Tarawai, he broke the horizon-line. 
Taraweti, he was hostile. 

* " Gaah, cow, is used in tlie Veda not only for milk, but even 
for leather." — Bncycl. Brit. 

t If this should be explained by kahu and titi, it will appear 
hereafter that titi came froni the cattle term. 


Tareha, he was red. 

Tareha, lie threw the earth over him. 

Tarehu, he caught one unawares. 

Taritari, he provoked a quarrel. 

Taringa, he was ohstinate. 

Tar ore, he had a noose put on him. 

Taru, he ate grass. 

Taruke, they lay dead in numbers. 

They knew him best as (Lat.) bos, the bull. He 
was not the ox, the word generally used for trans- 
lating bos ; he was the lordly male. Gau was used for 
cattle generally, but bos for the bull. 

Pohaha, he ripped up. 

WhakajooAe, he threw dust in the eyes. 

Pohuhu, there were swarms of them. 

Pohutu, he splashed. 

Poipoi, he tossed, swung about. 

Poike, he had a tuft on his head. 

Ponini, was red. 

Pononga, was a captive sometimes. 

Popo, crowded round. 

Porta, they fastened him with a ring on his leg.^ 

Potaka, he twisted round. 

Potete, he was curly. 

Powhiri, he whisked his tail (whiore) . 

There is a good test-word here — a word so short 
that we have no extra letters hiding the roots — the 
word poa. Poa means to allure by bait, in modern 
Maori. If, as I believe, po means bull (bos), then wc 
have only " a " left. In Sanscrit aj is to go or drive, 
represented by Maori a, to urge or drive. If " urge- 
ball " is the old word for enticing, alluring by bait, 

* (Cf .) (Gr.) Poris, a licifcr ; (Gr.) porkis, a ring. 


what was it? An Aryan Avord, tlio (Or.) jjoa, f^rass, 
is tlic exact word. That -was what they coaxed the 
hull Avitli, and iii al'ter-ceuturics, when they had for- 
jijottcii grass as pasture (only knowing it as weeds), 
and tlic animals which fed on it, the old " hull-coax " 
graft-word was kept for " alluring by bait." 

Here I must remark upon the bull's moral influence. 
He seems to have been the terror and annoyance of 
this people ; not like the cow, sheep, &c., with mild 
attributes. They did not use, so far as I have been 
able to discover, a single word derived from the joot 
whence we get " night." The (Sk.) nakta, (Gr.) nux, 
(Lat.) nox are all unrepresented. They use their old 
cattle-word, po, the bull ; in Greejv, poros, blind, dark ; 
in English, bo-gey, the demon of darkness. He 
was the evil bull of night to them, not the mild 
beneficent cow of heaven. They never seem to 
have lost this simple pastoral talk in the origin of 
their words : the student who has enough knowledge 
of classical tongues to be able to understand the 
affixes will find the vocaliulary full of them. This 
leads me to digress for one sentence. I am dealing 
with the language of an ancient people, who iid not 
l)y any means call a spade " an agricultural imple- 
ment." Some or my best examples I am compelled 
to keep back on account of their not being fit fo 
use here : the student can find them for himself, the 
general reader must take them for granted. 

The horse is mentioned but once ; and that not as 
(Gr.) hippos, bvit (Lat.) equus — early pronunciation, 
ekus. The Maori word is eke, to mount a horse. Al- 
though they had lost the animal they kept the meaning 
of this. The Maori expression " kai eke hoiho," a 
rider, has, strange to say, the Latin and the Anglo- 
Maori expressions together. 


The pig vras au animal unclean in the East^ and 
viewed by these herdsmen with disgust. He was not a 
pet with them^ as with the modern Maori : he was 
(Gr.) choiros — (M.) koeo^ offensive in smell; koero, 
causing sickness. 

They knew him better by his Latin name porcus 
not the pakeha-Maori poaka) . He was — 
PoA'eke, small. 
Po^eke, sullen. 
Poke, dirty. 

Poker e, he makes pitfalls. 
Pokere, in. the dark. 
Pokapoka, he makes a lot of holes. 
Poked, he brings swarms (of flies). 
Pokauoa, he goes at random. 
'Whaka-pokarekare, he disturbs the surface of the 

Could a description of porcine habits be better ? '•''■ 
Of the sheep^ (Gr.) ois^ they recorded — 

O/ia and ohaoha, it was generous (in food and 
wool) . 

OhU'i, it was cautious^ on its guard. 

Whaka-of//^ i\ieY warned one another. 

"Wliaka-o/io, it Mas easily startled. 

Oho-mauri, it started suddenly (literally " sheep- 
hearted ") . 

Ohonre, it started suddenly. 

* The rule for deriving the words (so far as I have yet ascertained 
it) is, that all words beginning with " po " had in their origin some- 
thing to do with " hull," either physically or morally (as 6o-gey). 
From these must be excepted the " pok," because they are for the 
pig. But from the pig's share of "pok" must be excepted the 
" pokos," as this is not " pok " but " po-ko " (bull-cow). As an ex- 
ample, " pokowhiwhi " is " po-ko-whiwhi," the last being a paronym 
^ of the (Sk.) vevi, to receive. 


Thus vrc sec wliy the (M.) taura, a rope (originally 
the biill-rope), when contracted to tau, a rope, was 
the same as tau, the bark of a dog : the bark of the 
dog was the " tether " of the flock. 

In speaking of the habits of animals, it must be 
noticed that the (Sk.) mih, to urinate, is the Maori 
niinii, with all its compounds, mimira, mimiro, mira- 
mira and miti. From this also comes the weapon 
mere (afterwards the (Sk.) mri, to die, from its use), 
being shaped like what a modern Maori would caU 
puru-raho, but which his ancestors called po-raho. 
From this last word comes the name of another weapon, 
the paraoa, the Aryan axe, called in Sanscrit 
" parashu."^ (M.) Hani, a wooden sword with a 
broad tip, was used as a weapon — (Sk.) han, to kill; 
but it was used at first for another purpose — like 

The Maoris knew the use of the bow and arrow. 

(Gr.) belos, an arrow, a dart ; (M.) pere, an arrow '■ 
this is sometimes (M.) kopere, " cow-arrow,'^ pei*- 
haps a dart thrown with a loop or sling. (Gr.) 
tazus, to stretch or extend, is the (M.) ko-taha, " cow- 
stretched," from its leather string. (Gr.) bios, a bow 
or bow-string, is the (M.) piupiu, to oscillate, or piu, 
to throw or swing by a cord — perhaps this last a 
" sling," but the Greek form was a " bow," 

They had knives — (M.) maripi, a knife ; (Sk.) ripi, 
to cut : forks — (M.) purou, (Sk.) bil, to divide ; (M.) 
t'rou, (Sk.) tij, to point. They had fans or fly-flaps — 

* If it should be asserted that, instead of the Maoris calling the 
sperm-whale "paraoa" because they made their weapons from its 
ribs, the weapon was called after the name of the whale, the 
case is proven by the Sanscrit " parashu." The Aryans certainly 
did not call their club after the whale, as the whale did not ijihabit 
Central Asia. 


(M.) koTrliiuwliiu, literally " cow's tails " (wliiore, 
tail). Tliey had buckets — (Sk.) drona — -u-liich were 
described as " rona^ confined with cords ; rona, to 
swallow up : " this was the milk-pail swallowing the 

They had not only the word yiliok^-tete, to milk^ 
but the (Sk.) word yu. (Sk.) yu, to milk : (M. pr.) u. 

(M.) u, the udder : waiw^ milk ; ?<ma, the breast 
(this last not of cattle). 

They did not call their daughters milkmaids. (Sk.) 
Duhitar, daughter, signifies a milkmaid ; but they 
had A-otiro, a girl looking after cows ; /cohine_, a cow- 
girl. Soj in Maori you must not say, E A-ohine L 
(Oh, cow-girl !) You must say, E hine ! (Yoimg 
lady !) .* 

They were not only acquainted with domesticated 
animals ; they knew of savage creatures on their own 
"s^dde plains, and had met with others on the journey 
through India. They knew the wolf, lupus (Lat.) . 
Rup^hyx, he was wild. 

Riipe, shaking anything violently (the sheep) . 
Rare, shaking, tossing about. 
Rurei'ure, maltreating. 

Riiru, causing them to run together. This last 
probably at the cry of " Lupe ! Lupe ! " 
They knew (Gr.) Gups, the vulture. These 
Kapakcqia, stood in a row. 
Kapakapa, fluttered and flapped. 
Kapo, snatched. 
Kaj)e, picked out (eyes, &c.). 
Kokila (Sk.), the crow, became (M.) kokako, the 
crow. Kukkux, the cuckoo, became kuku^^, the pigeon, 
cither from its cry, or protecting the cuckoo's young. 

* Cf. the Greek word kore, a girl, and (>k.) kopi, a shepherdess. 


They knew the cat, not as (Gr.) gala"'^ (I do not 
know if ngcru is an Island word brought by Tupaea, 
Captain Cook's interpreter), but the great cats of the 
Indian forests, the (Gr.) tigris, (M. jn-.) tahika, 

Taheke, he was quick. 

Tahekeheke, he was striped. 

Tahei, he was striped. 

Taheke, he came down like a torrent. 

Taker e, he was ensnared. 

Tahere, he hung himself (alluded to afterwards). 

They knew him best as the great cat (Lat.), catus. 
Katete, it was large. 
Katae ! how great ! 
Katikati, it champed its jaws. 
Kati, it blocked up the way. 
Katea, it frightened one. 
Kateatea, it came singly. 
Katekate, they made shoulder-mats of its fur. 

There is an admirable test- word here. Katete is to 
lengthen a spear by joining a piece on. Katete is 
formed, I believe, by kate, a cat, and te, to stick in ; 
or tete, the head of a spear. Thus the modern word 
katete means to " cat's claw," join a piece on as a 
eat does when she protrudes her spears or claws from 
their sheath. 

The word (Gr.) karabos, the crab, they remembered 
in (M.) karapiti, it pinched, nipped. 

Although they had dwellings, these were not the 
mansions of great city-dwellers. They had not the 
(Sk.) damas, (Lat.) domus, for '' house." Their house 
was a whare, a covering, as in (Sk.) var, to cover. 

* The Samoans have this as geli. 


They liad a boat, (M.) waka; but it was not tlic 
naas or navis o£ later maritime Aryans, it was only 
their "" cow/' (Lat.) vacca, as in (Sk.) vab, to carry ; 
and plavaka, with which I compared it in the First 
Part, is only " splashing " or " washing " cow — their 
beast of burden by land turned to a water-beastie. 
The Maoris kept both these roots : (M.) pora, a ship^ 
and (M.) waka, a canoe, are the joint children of pla- 
vaka, that is, pora-waka. Plavaka is one of the 
most ancient names for a ship, and is in Greek ploion. 

If some great European philologist would now 
undertake the task of rescuing the fast-fading older 
word-types of the languages spoken in these Southern 
Seas, he will have reward as he works, and fame for 
his guerdon. 

These uncivilized brothers of ours have kept em- 
balmed in their simple speech a knowledge of the 
habits and history of oiir ancestors, that, in the San- 
scrit, Greek, Latin, and Teutonic tongues, have been 
hidden under the dense aftergrowth of literary opu- 




In this chapter I approacli a part of my subject 
wliich will perhaps prove more interesting reading 
to some, than any comparison of word-forms could be. 
The evidence given by common religious belief, by 
common superstitions, hopes, and fears must be of the 
utmost value in trying to trace the descent and fol- 
low the footsteps of a people. I need not waste time 
by quoting authorities on the subject of the fear and 
horror entertained by the Maoris towards the lizard, 
or reptiles of its kind. In almost every book treat- 
ing of the habits and modes of thought of the Maori 
race, mention is made of this special abhorrence. 
That the ngarara lizards were the abodes of super- 
natural beings, powerful to harm, and generally of 
evil influence, although open to propitiation, seems to 
be the most concise statement I can make of a well- 
known fact. But, whence this fear ? The reptiles 
of New Zealand now number neither snakes, croco- 
diles, nor other deadly creatures in their ranks ; and 
the question narrows itself down to two issues : one 
is that formerly deadly reptiles did exist among 
them ; the other, that the Maori race once inhabited 
a land where the serpent or lizard form was clothed 
with natural terrors, heightened by a superstitious 
dread which has survived the actual presence of the 
creatures calling it forth. The answer to the first 
question is that no physical proof of the existence of 
any large reptile has been demonstrated by the dis- 
covery of osseous or other remains. 


INIr. Colenso, our greatest authority on matters re- 
lating to the Natives, after diligent search among the 
places to which tradition pointed as those Avhere 
gigantic saurians had been killed in old days, found 
no scientific evidence to bear out any such tale. The 
appearance pointed out to him by a Native as the 
actual ribs of a celebrated monster which had been 
killed in old days, turned out to be only the crum- 
bling outcrop of some calcite rock. And this, although 
the actual bones of an immense struthious bird, the 
INIoa (extinct, perhaps, for centuries), have been found 
very freely on the surface of the land ; the traditions 
and proverbs, &c., which mention the moa not being of 
such a circumstantial character as those treating of 
the existence of the Great Lizard. 

We will now examine the traditional evidence ; and 
to do this thoroughly I must quote at length the 
very interesting legends published by Mr. Colenso in 
the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. 

1. The Slaying of Hotupuku. 

Here is the tale of the valiant deeds of certain 
men of old, the ancestors of the chiefs of Rotorua. 
Their names were Purahokura, Reretai, Roiigohaua, 
Rongohape, and Pitaka. They were all the children 
of one father, whose name was Tamaihuturoa. 

As they grew up to manhood they heard of several 
persons who had been killed in journeying over the 
roads leading by Tauhunui, and Tu^Doro, and Tikitapu 
— all places of that district. People of Rotorua who 
had travelled to Taupo, or who went into the hill- 
country to meet their relations, were never again 
heard of ; while the folks of the villages who were 
expecting them were thinking all manner of things 



about their long aljsencc^ concluding that they were 
still at their respective places of abode; but^ as it 
aftcrM'ards turned out, they were all dead in the 

At Iast«a party left Taupo on a visit to Rotorua, 
to travel thither by those same roads where those 
former travelling parties had been consumed. Their 
friends at Taupo thought that they had arrived at 
Rotorua, and were prolonging their stay there ; but, 
no, they, too, were all , dead — lying in heaps in that 
very place in the wilderness ! 

Afterwards another travelling party started from 
Rotorua to Taupo : this party wxnt by the lakes 
Tarawera and Rotomahana, and they all arrived safe 
at Taupo. On their arrival there many qvicstions 
were asked on both sides respecting the people of 
Taupo who had gone to Rotorua, but nothing what- 
ever could be learned of them. On hearing this the 
people of Taupo earnestly inquired of the newly- 
arrived from Rotorua, by what road they came. 
They replied, " We came by the open plain of Kai- 
ngaroa, by the road to Tauhunui.^^ Then it was that 
the people of Taupo and the party from Rotorua put 
their heads together and talked, and d.eeply considered, 
and said, " Surely those missing travellers must have 
fallen in with a marauding party of the enemy; for 
we all well know that they have no kinsfolk in those 
parts." Upon this the Taupo people determined on 
revenge, and so they proceeded to get together an 
army for that jjurjjose, visiting the several villages of 
Taupo to arouse the people. All being ready they 
commenced their march. They travelled all day and 
slept at night by the roadside; and the next morning 
at daylight they crossed the river Waikato. Then 
they travelled on over the open plain of Kaingaroa 


until they came to a place called Kapenga, where 
dwelt a noxious monster^ whose name was Hotupuku. 
When the monster smelt the odour of men^ which 
had been wafted towards him from the army by the 
wind^ it came out of the cave. At this time the 
band of men were travelling onwards in the direction 
of that cave^ but were unseen by that monster ; 
while that monster was also coming on towards them 
unseen by the party. Suddenly, however, the men 
looked up, and, lo ! the monster was close upon them, 
on which they immediately retreated in confusion. 
In appearance it was like a moving hill of earth. 
Then the fear-awakening cry was heard, " Who is 
straggling behind? Ijook out there ! a monster, a 
monster is coming upon you.'^ Then the whole 
army fled in all directions in dire dismay and con- 
fusion at seeing the dreadful spines and spear-like 
crest of the creature, all moving and brandishing in 
anger, resembling the gathering-together of the spines, 
and spears, and spiny crests and ridges of the dread- 
ful marine monsters of the ocean. In the utter rout 
of the army they fell foul of each other through fear, 
but, owing to their number, some escaped alive, though 
some were wounded and died. Then, alas ! it was 
surely known that it was this evil monster Vvhich had 
completely destroyed all the j)eople who had formerly 
travelled by this way. 

The news of this was soon carried to all the 
parts of the Rotorua district, and the brave v/arriors 
of the several tribes heard of it. They soon assem- 
bled together, 170 all told, took up their arms, and 
marched even until they came to Kapenga, in the 
plain, and there they pitched their camp. Immedi- 
ately they set to work to pull some of the leaves of 
the cabbage-tree (Cordyline australisj , others to twist 
them into ropes. Then it was that all the various arts 



of rope-making were seen and developed — the round 
rope, the flat rope, the double-twisted rope, and the 
four-sided rope. At last the rope-making was ended. 

Then tlie several chiefs arose to make orations 
and speeches encouraging each other to be bravc^ to 
go carefully to work, to be on the alert, and to be 
circumspect, and so to perform all the duties of the 
warrior. All this they did according to the old- 
established custom when going to fight the enemy. 

One in particular of these chiefs said, " Listen 
to me. Let us go gently to work. Let us not go too 
near to the monster, but stay at a distance from it, 
and when we perceive the wind blowing towards us 
over it, then we will get up closer ; for if the v»'ind 
should blow from us to the monster, and it smells us, 
then it will suddenly rush out of its cave, and our 
work and schemes will be all upset." To this advice 
the chiefs all assented, and then the men were all 
properly arranged for each and every side of the big 
rope snare they had contrived and made, so that they 
might all be ready to pull and haul away on the ropes 
when the proper time should come. 

Then they told off a certain number to go to the 
entrance of the cave where the monster dwelt, while 
others were well armed with hardwood digging- 
spades and clubs, with long spears and rib-bones 
of whales, and with short wooden cleavers or halberts. 
Last of all, they carefully placed and laid their ropes 
and nooses, so that the monster should be comj)letely 
taken and snared in them ; and then, when all was 
ready, the men who had been appointed to go up to 
the mouth of the cave to entice and provoke the crea- 
ture to come forth, went forwards. But, lo ! before 
they had got near to the cave the monster had already 
smelt the odour of men. 


Then it arose within its cave^ and the men who had 
gone forth to provoke it heard the rumbling of its 
awful tread within the cave, resembling the grating 
noise of thunder. Notwithstanding, they courage- 
ouslj^ enticed it forward by exposing themselves to 
danger and running towards it, that it might come 
well away from its cave ; and when the monster saw 
the food for its maw by which it lived, it came forth 
from its den ramjjing for joy. 

Now, this monster had come f era'lessly on with open 
mouth, and with its tongue darting forth after those 
men ; but in the meanwhile they had themselves 
entered into the snare of ropes, and had passed on and 
through them, and were now got beyond the set snares, 
the ropes, and the nooses, and snares all lying in 
their proper positions on the level ground. At this 
time those men were all standing around below when 
the huge head of the beast appeared on the top of the 
little hill, and the other men were also ascending that 
hill and closing in gradually all around. The monster 
lowered his, head awhile and then came on ; and then 
the men — the little- army of provokers — moved further 
away on to the top of another hillock, and the monster, 
following them, entered the snares. At this the men 
on that little hill stood still ; then the monster moved 
on further and further towards them, climbing up that 
ascent also, so that when its head appeared on the top 
of that second hillock its fore legs were also within 
the set loops of the big snare. 

Then it was that the simultaneous cry arose from 
the party who were standing on the top of the little 
hill, watching intently. " Good ! capital. It has 
entered ! it is enclosed. Pull ! haul away !" And 
that other party, who were all holding on to the 
several ropes, anxiously waiting for the word of com- 


iiKUid, hearing tliis, pulled away heartily. And, lo ! 
it came to pass exactly as they had all planned and 
wished for — the monster was caught fast in the 
very middle of its belly. Now it began to lash about 
furiously with its tail, feeling more and more the pain 
arising from the severe constriction of its stomach by 
the ropes. 

Then the bearers of arms leapt forth. A wonderful 
sight ! The monster's tail was vigorously assaiilted 
by them. They stabbed it over and over with 
their hardwood digging-picks and their long spears, 
and pounded it with their clubs, so that even its head 
felt the great amount of pain inflicted on its tail, 
together with that arising from the severe constriction 
of the ropes on its softer parts. Now the monster 
began to rear and knock about dreadfully with its 
head. On seeing this the enticing band of provokers, 
who had still kept their position in front, again began 
to entice it to make straight forward after them by 
going up close to it and then running away from it, 
when, on its attempting to stretch out after them, they 
suddenly faced about in a twinkling, and began to play 
upon the monster's head with good effect. Oh ! it 
was truly wonderful to behold ! 

By this time, too, the party of rope-pullers had suc- 
ceeded in making fast all their ropes to the several 
posts they had fixed in the earth all round about for 
that pur^iose. This done, they also seized their 
weapons and rushed forward to assist their comrades 
in beating the monster's head, this being now the jjart 
of it which reared and knocked about the most %do- 
lently. Now, the assault on its head was carried on 
alternately by those men combined with the others 
who began it, and who, for that purpose, divided them- 
selves into two parties. When one party rushed forward 


and delivered their blows^ and the hideous head was 
turned towards them, and they fell back a bit, the 
other band came on the other side and delivered their 
battery, either party always beating in the same place. 
After a while the monster became less vigorous, 
although it still raged, for its whole body was fast 
becoming one vast mass of bruises through the incessant 
and hearty beating it was receiving. 

Still the fight was prolonged. Prodigies of strength 
and valour, ability and uimbleness were shown that 
day by that valiant band of 170, whose repeated 
blows were rained upon the monster. At last the 
monster yielded quietly, and there it lay extended at 
full length on the ground, stretched out like an im- 
mense white larva "^ of the rotten pine wood, quite 
dead. By this time it was quite dark — indeed, night ; 
so they left it until the morning. When the sun ap- 
peared they all arose to cut up this big fish.t There 
it lay, dead ! Looking at it as it lay extended, it 
resembled a very large whale ;J but its general form 
and appearance was that of the great lizard, § with 
rigid spiny crest, while the head, the legs, feet and 
claws, the tail, the scales, the skin, and the general 
s^nny ridges, all these resembled those of the more 
common lizards (tuatara) . Its size was that of the 
sperm whale (paraoa). 

* " The word is huliu. I suppose this large grub has been 
selected for a comparison owing to its dying helplessly extended, 
and its plump, fat appearance." 

t"I have translated this word (ika), whenever it occurs in 
the story, by ' fish,' this being one of its principal meanings ; but 
it would carry a very different one to a New Zealander. Here it 
would be just synonymous with whale, or large marine animal." 

\ " Nui tohora." 

§ " Tuatetc, the angry frightful lizard, now extinct." 


Tlioii this mail-devouring- monster was closely 
looked at and examined for the first time — the wretch, 
the monster that had destroyed so many persons, so 
many hands oi' armed men and travelling parties ! 
Long indeed was the gazing ; great was the astonish- 
ment expressed. At last one of the many chiefs 
said, " Let us throAV off our clothing, and all hands 
turn to cut up this fish, that we may also see its 
stomach, which has swallowed so many of the chil- 
dren of men.""^' Then they began to cut it open, using 
obsidian and pitchstone knives, and saws for cutting 
up flesh, made of sharks' teeth, and the shells of sea- 
and fresh-water mussels (Unio). On the outside, 
beneath its skin, were enormous layers of belly-fat 
(suet), thick and in many folds. Cutting still deeper 
into its great stomach, or maw, there was an amazing 
sight. Lying in heaps were the whole bodies of men, 
of women, and of children. Some other bodies 
were severed in the middle, while some had their 
heads off, and some their arms, and some their legs — no 
doubt occasioned through the forcible muscular action 
of its enormous throat in swallowing, when the strong 
blasts of its breath were emitted from its capacious 
and cavernous belly. 

And with them were also swallowed all that apper- 
tained to them — their greenstone war-clubs, their 
short knobbed clubs of hardwood, their weapons of 
whales' ribs, both long and short, their travelling 
staves of rank, their halbert-shaped weapons, their 
staffs and spears — there they all were within the 
bowels of the monster, as if the place was a regular 
stored armoury of war. Here, also, were found their 
various ornaments of greenstone for both neck and 

* " Uri-o-Tiki — literally, descendants of Tiki ; Tiki being in 
their mythology the creator or progenitor of man." 


ears^ and sharks^ teetli^ too, in great abundance (mako) . 
Besides all those there were a great variety of gar- 
ments found in its maw — fine bordered flax mats ; 
thick impervious war-ma,ts, some with ornamented 
borders ; chiefs' woven garments, made of dogs' tails, 
of albatross feathers, of kiwi feathers, of red (parrot) 
feathers, and of seal's skin, and of white dog's 
skin ; also white, black, and chequered mats made 
of woven flax, and garments of undressed flax 
(Phormium) and the long-leaved kahakaha (Astelia, 
Species), and of many other kinds. All the dead 
bodies, and parts of bodies, the conquerors scooped 
out and threw into a heap, and buried in a pit which 
they dug there. And, that work over, they proceeded 
to cut up the fish into pieces ; and, when they had 
examined its fat and suet, they expressed its oil by 
clarifying it with heat, which was eaten by the tribe. 
And so they devoured and consumed in their own 
stomachs their implacable foe. This done, they all 
returned to Rotorua and dwelt there. 

2. The Killing of Pekehaua. 

After the destruction of the monster Hotupuku, the 
fame of that exploit was heard by all the many tribes 
of the district of Rotorua. Then a messenger was sent 
to those heroes by Hororita, or by some other chief, 
to inform them that another man-eating monster dwelt 
at a place called Te Awahou, and that the existence of 
this monster was known just as in the former case 
of the one that dwelt in the plain at Kaingaroa. The 
travelling companies of the districts of Waikato and 
of Patetere were never hcai'd of ; and so the travelling 
companies of the llotorua district, which left for 
Waikato, were also somehow lost, being never again 
heard of. When the people of Rotorua heard this 


news, those same 170 heroes arose from out of many 
warriors, and set forth for Tc Awaliou. Arriving 
there they sought for information, and gained all they 
could. Then tliey asked, " Where does this monster 
dwell?" The people of the place replied, ''It dwells 
in the water, or it dwells on the dry land, who should 
certainly know ? According to our supposition, no 
doubt it is much like that one which was killed." 

Hearing this they went to the woods and brought 
thence a large quantity of supplejacks (Rliipogonum 
scandens), with which to make water-traps of basket- 
work. Those they interlaced and bound firmly together 
with a strong trailing-plant ( Muhlenheckia complexa), 
so that when they were finished the traps consisted of 
two or even three layers of canes or supplejacks. 
Then they twisted ropes wherewith to set and fix the 
water-traps in order to snare the monster, and these 
were all done. Then they made similar plans and 
arrangements for themselves as on the former occa- 
sion, when the first one was killed. All being ready, 
the band of heroes set out, reciting their forms of 
spell or charms as they went along. Those were of 
various kinds and potencies, but all having one ten- 
dency, to enable them to overcome the monster. 
Onwards they went, and after travelling some distance 
they neared the place or water-hole where it was said 
the monster lived. The name of that deep pool is Tc 
Warouri (i.e., the black chasm). They travelled on 
until they gained the high edge of the river's side, 
where they again recited their charms and spells, 
which done the 170 proceeded to encamp on that very 
spot. Then they diligently sought out among them- 
selves a fearless and courageous man, when a chief 
called Pitaka presented himself and was selected. He 
seized the water-trap — which was decorated on the top 


and sides and below with biinclies of pigeons' feathers; 
the ropes also "were all fastened around the trap, to 
which stones were also made fast all round it to make 
it heavy and to act as an anchor to keep it steady — 
and, having seized it, he plunged into the water with 
his companions, wdien they boldly dived down into 
the spring, which gushed up with a roaring noise from 
beneath the earth. While these were diving below 
the otlters above were diligently employed in perform- 
ing their several works — viz., of reciting povrcrful 
charms and spells,"^ of which they uttered all they 
knew of various kinds and powers, for the purpose of 
overcoming the monster. 

Nov.', it came to pass that when the spines and 
spear-like crest of the monster had become soft and 
flaccid through the power of those spells and charms — 
for they Lad all been erect and alive, in full expectation 
of a rare caanibal feast — Pitaka and his chosen com- 
panions descended to the very bottom of the chasm. 
There they found the monster, dwelling in its own nice 
home. Then the brave Pitaka went forwards quite 
up to it, coaxing and enticing, and bound the rope 
firmly around the monster, which having done, lo ! in 

* Upv.arus of ten kinds of spells are here, and in otlier parts of 
these stories, particularly mentioned by name ; but, as we have 
nothing synonymous in English, their navies cannot be well trans- 
lated, and it would take as manj" pages of IMS. to explain them. 
Among them were spells causing weariness to the foe, spells for the 
epcarmg of lanhcJias (monsters), spells for the warding-off attack 
and for the protection of the men from the enemy, spells for 
causing bravery, for returning like for like in attack, for uplifting 
feet from ground, fo)- making powerless, &c., all more orlesscurious> 
but mostly very simple in terms. Of spells and charms, exorcisms 
and incantations, for good- or for ill-luck, for blessing and cursing^ 
the ancient New Zealander possessed hundreds, ingeniously con- 
trived for almost every purpose ; few, however, if any, of them could 
be termed prayers. Such form a bulky history of themselves. 



a twinkling he (Pitaka) had clean escaped behind it. 
Then his companions pulled the rope, and those at 
the top knew the sign, and hauled away and drew up 
to the top their companions, together with the mon- 
ster, so that they all came up at one time. Never- 
theless, those above had also recited all manner of 
charms for the purpose of raising, lifting, and up- 
bearing of heavy weights, otherwise they could not 
have hauled them all up, owing to their very great 

For a while, however, they were all below ; then 
they came upwards by degrees, and at last they floated 
all together on the surface. Ere long they had dragged 
the monster on shore, on to the dry land, where it lay 
extended ; then they hastened to hit and beat with 
their clubs the jaws of this immense fish. Now, this 
monster had the nearer resemblance to a fish, because 
it had its habitation in the water. 

So then went forth the loud pealing call to all the 
towns and villages of the Rotorua district. And the 
tribes assembled on the spot to look at and examine 
their implacable foe. There it lay, dragged on to the 
dry land of the river's side, in appearance very much 
like a big common whale. Yet it was not exactly like 
a full-grown old whale : it was more in bulk as the 
calf of a big whale as it there lay. They then com- 
menced cutting up that fish as food for themselves. 
On laying its huge belly wide open, there everything 
was seen at one glance, all in confusion, as if it were 
the centre of a dense forest.* 

* " The words are ' KoteriuoTaneMaliuta,' — Zii., the hollow stomacli 
or centre of Tane Mahuta — i.e., the god of forests; Tane IMahiitru 
being the god of forests." 


Foi*^ going downwards into its vast stomach, there lay 
the dead, just as if it were an old bone-cave, with piles 
of skeletons and bones — bones of those it had swallowed 
in former days. Yes, swallowed down with all their 
garments about them — women, and children, and men ! 
There was to be seen the enormous heap of clothing 
of all kinds : chiefs' mats of dogs'-tails and of dogs'- 
skins, white, black, and chequered; with the beau- 
tiful woven flax mats adorned with ornamental borders, 
and garments of all kinds. There were also arms and 
implements of all kinds.* 

Then they proceeded to roast and to broil and to 
set aside of its flesh and fat in large preserving cala- 
bashes, for food and for oil. And so they devoured 
their deadly enemy all within their own stomachs ; but 
all the dead they buried in a pit. 

Then every one of those valiant warriors returned 
their own homes. The nan 
Mangungu {i.e., broken bones). 

to their own homes. The name of that village was 

So much for the victorious work ! Oh, thou all- 
devouring throat of man, that thou shouldst even seek 
to hunt after the flesh of monsters as food for thee ! 


When the fame of those victors who had killed the 
monster Pekehaua reached the various towns and vil- 
lages of Tarawera, of Rotokakalii, and of Okataina, 

* " Ten kinds are here enumerated, all of hardwood and hard white 
whalc's-bonc — clubs, spears, staves, thin hardwood chopping-knives, 
white whalebone clubs, carved staves of rank, and many others, in- 
cluding even darts and barbed spears, which the monster had carried 
off with its food. There those arms and implements all were, as if 
the place were a storehouse of weapons or an armoury." 


the people there were filled with wonder at the bravery 
of those men who had essayed to destroy that terrible 
and malicious man-devourer. 

Then they began to think. Very likely there is also 
a monster in the road to Tikitapu, because the travel- 
ling companies going by that place to Rotorua are 
never once heard of. Their relations are continually 
inquiring, " Have they arrived at the place to which 
they went ?" but there is no response ; therefore they 
are dead. Hence it follows that the sad thought arises 
within, "Were they killed by some monster, or by some 
travelling man like themselves, or by some armed 
marauding party of the enemy ? 

But the chief of Tikitapu and of Okareka, whose 
name was Tangaroaraihi, knew very well all along 
that there was a monstrous beast at Tikitapu, although 
he did not know that the beast there residing ate up 
men : the chief always believed that it dwelt quietly, 
for it assumed the very air of peace and quietness 
whenever the chief and his men went to the spot where 
it dwelt to give it food ; and that beast also knew very 
well all its feeders, and all those who used it tenderly 
and kindly. Nevertheless, when they had returned 
from feeding it to their village, and any other persons 
appeared there going by that way, then that monster 
came down and pursued those persons and devoured 
them as food. 

Now, the manner of acting of this ugly beast was 
very much like that of a (bad) dog which has to 
be tied to a stick (or clog), for its knowledge of its 
own master was great : whenever its master, Tangaroa- 
mihi, went there to see it its demeanour was wholly quiet 
and tractable, but when people belonging to another 
and strange tribe went along by that road, then it 


arose to bark and growl at them ; so that, what with 
the loud and fearful noise of its mouth and the sharp 
rattlings of its rings and leg-circlets, great fear came 
upon them, and then he fell on them and ate them 

Now, when the multitude everywhere heard of the 
great valour of those men, the tribes all greatly extolled 
them and wondered exceedingly at the prodigious 
powers of those four chiefs. 

Then it was that the chiefs of Rotokakahi, of 
Tarawera, of Okataina, and of Rotorua began to 
understand the matter, and to say, " Oh ! there is 
perhaps a monster also dwelling on the road to Tiki- 
tapu, because the travelling parties going from those 
parts to Rotorua, as well as those coming from 
Rotorua to these five lakes, are never heard of.'' For 
when the travellers went to Rotorua by the road of 
Okareka they reached their homes in safety ; but 
if the travellers went from Tarawera to Rotorua by 
the road of Tikitapu they never reached Rotorua at 
all — somehow they always got lost by that road. 

And so, again, it was with the people from Roto- 
kakahi travelling thence to Rotorua — if they went by 
the road leading by Pareuru they safely arrived at 
Rotorua; and also in returning from Rotorua, if they 
came back by that same road they reached their 
villages at Rotokakahi in safety. Somehow there was 
something or other in that road by Tikitapu which 
caused men's hearts to dislike greatly that way, 
because those who travelled by it were lost and never 
heard of. Therefore the hearts of those that re- 
mained alive began to stir within them, so that some 
even went so far as to say, '' Perhaps that chief 
Tangaroamihi has killed and destroyed both the 


travelling parties and the armed parties who travelled 
by the way oL' Tikitapu." But that chief, Tangaroa- 
mihi, had shown his hospitality and expressed his 
kindly feeling to the inquirers who went to his town 
to seek after those who were missing. 

Now, however, when the suffering people heard of 
the exceeding great valour of those four chiefs in their 
slaying of monsters, then they considered how best to 
fetch them to come and have a look at Tikitapu. 

So their messenger was sent to those brave heroes, 
and when they heard from him the message they all 
bestirred themselves — that same 170 — for they were 
greatly delighted to hear of more work for them in 
the line of slaying monsters. So they immediately 
commenced preparations for their journey to Tikitapu, 
some in pounding fern-root, some in digging up 
convolvulus-roots, some in taking whitebait [Galaxias 
attenuatus) , and some in dredging fresh-water mussels, 
all to be used as food on their journey to Taiapu, to 
the mount at Moerangi ; for Moerangi was the place 
where that noxious beast called Kataore dwelt. 

In the morning at the break of day they arose 
and started, taking their first meal far away on the 
great plain, at a nice kind of stopping-place. When 
they had scarcely finished their meal they commenced 
conversation with the usual talk of warriors on an 
expedition ; for at this time they did not exactly know 
whether it was really by a monster or by the people who 
dwelt thereabouts that all those who had travelled by 
that road, whether armed parties or whether singly, 
had been destroyed. 

When this armed party took their journey they also 
brought away with them the necessary ropes and sucli 
tbiings, which had been previously made and got ready. 


They knew that such (as they had heard) was the evil 
state of all the roads and ways of that place ; therefore 
they sat awhile and considered, knowing very well the 
work they had in hand. 

However, when the eating and talking were ended 
they again rose and recommenced their march. They 
entered the forest and traversed it, quitting it on the 
other side. Then the priests went before the party 
to scatter abroad their spells and charms — that is to 
say, their Maori recitations. But they acted just the 
same on this as on former occasions already related. 

They recited all the charms and spells they had 
used against both Hotupuku"^ and Pekehaua, going on 
and reciting as they went. At last they made up their 
minds to halt, so they sat down. Then it was that the 
people in the villages, under the chief Tangaroamihi, 
gazed watchfully upon that armed party then encamped, 
thinking it was a party of their enemies coming to fight 
and to kill; but in this they were deceived, it being alto- 
gether a different party. 

A long time the party remained there, watching 
and waiting, but nothing came. At last one of the 
chiefs got up and said, " Whereabouts does this 
noxious beast that destroys men dwell T' Then 
another of those chiefs replied, " Who knows where — 
in the water or in the stony cliff that overhangs 
yonder ? " On this they set to work and closely 
examined that lake ; but, alas ! the monster was not 
to be found there. Nevertheless the appearance of 
that Avater was of a forbidding, fearful character — that 
is to say, the fear was caused by the peculiar glitter 
of the water, as if strangely and darkly shaded, having 

■* " Though not once mcntioried or alluded to in that story." 


the appearance of the water whence the greenstone is 
ohtaincd. Biit^ notwithstanding all that, they could 
not detect any kind of chasm or deep dark hole in all 
that lake like the hole in which Pekehaua was 

Then certain of the chiefs said to the priests, 
" Begin. Go to Avork. Select some of your patent 
charms and spells." So those were chosen and 
used : the priests recited their charms causing 
stinging like nettles, and their charms of stitching 
together, so that the bubbles might speedily arise to 
the surface of the lake, if so be that the monster 
they sought was there in the water. At this time 
one of the priests arose, upon the word spoken forth 
by one of the chiefs of the party, and said, " It is all 
to no purpose : not a single burst or bubble has 
arisen in the water of Tikitapu." 

Then they turned their attention upwards to the 
stony cliif which stood before them ; when, before 
they had quite finished their spell causing nettle- 
stinging, and were reciting their lifting and raising 
charms, a voice was heard roaring downwards from 
the overhanging precipice at Moerangi, as if it were 
the creaking of trees in the forest when violently 
agitated by the gale. Then they knew and said, 
"^ Alas ! the monster's home is in the cave in the 
stony cliff." 

Upon this the whole body of 170 arose and stood 
ready for action; for glad they also were that they 
had found food for their inner man. In their iip- 
rising, however, they were not forgetful, for they 
immediately commenced reciting their powerful 
charms and spells. All were used, of each and 


every kind ; none were left unsaid. The several 
priests made use of all,^ that being their peculiar 

They now set to work, and soon they got near to 
the entrance of the cave in the rock where this 
noxious cannibal beast dwelt. At last they got up to 
the cave, where the whole band quietly arranged 
themselves, and took a long time to consider how to 
act. At length the valiant, fearless men arose — men 
who had already bound monsters fast — and, seizing 
the ropes, went forward into the cave. There they 
saw that noxious beast sitting and staring full at 
them. But, oh, such fearful eyes ! Who can describe 
them ? In appearance like the full moon rising up 
over the distant dark mountain-range ; and when 
gazed at by the band, those hideous eyes glared forth 
upon them like strong daylight suddenly flashing into 
the dark recesses of the forest. And anon, lo ! they 
were in colour as if clear shining greenstone were 
gleaming and scintillating in the midst of the black 
eyeballs. But that was really all that gave rise to 
the appearance of fear, because the creature's spines 
and crest of living spears had become quite flaccid 
and powerless, through the potent operations of the 
many weakening spells which had been used by those 
numerous warriors — that is to say, priests. 

Then they managed to put their hands stealthily 
over its huge head, gently stroking it at the same 
time. At length the rope was got round the mon- 
ster's neck and made secure. Another rope was also 
slidcd further on below its fore-legs, and that was 
firmly fixed. Twice did those brave men carry ropes 

* Seven or eight kinds of charms and spells are here also particu- 
larized, and then the remainder given in a lump. 


into the cave. Having done all tKis, they came 
out to tlicir friends, those of the 170 warriors 
who had heen anxiously waiting their return, and 
who, when they saw them emerge, inquired, " Are 
your ropes made fast ? ^' They replied, " Yes ; the 
ropes are fastened to the monster — one round the 
neek, and one round the middle." Then the inquiry 
arose, " How shall the dragging it forth from its 
cave, and its destruction, he accomplished ? " When 
some of the chiefs replied, '' Let us carry the ropes 
outside of the trees which grow around, so that when 
the monster begins to lash and hound about, we shall 
be the better able to make them fast to their trunks." 
Then others said, " All that is very good, but how 
shall we manage to kill it ?" Some replied, " Why 
should we trouble ourselves about killing it ? Is it 
not so fastened with ropes that it cannot get away ? 
Just leave it to itself. Its own great strength will 
cause it to jump violently about, and jerk, and knock, 
and beat itself. After that, we having made the 
ropes fast to the trees, the destroyers can easily 
run in on it and kill it ; or, if not, let us leave 
it alone to strangle itself in the ropes." So all this 
was carried out by those 170 brave warriors. 

Then the several men, having been all properly 
placed so as to hold and handle and drag the rope 
effectually, the word of command was given, " Haul 
away," and then they all hauled with a will. But, 
wonderful to behold, entirely owing to the cave being 
in the face of the perpendicular cliff, almost simul- 
taneously with the first pull, lo ! the monster was 
already outside of the entrance to the cave. But then, 
in so saying, the potent work of the priests in reciting 
their raising and uplifting charms must be also in- 
cluded in the cause of easy accomplishment. The 


moment tliat the monster's great tail was outside clear 
of the cave, then its head began to rear and toss and 
plunge, frightful to behold. On seeing this, they 
loosened a little the rope that held it by its middle ; 
when, lo ! its head was close to the trees, against 
which it began to lean, while it knocked about its 
tail prodigiously. The men, however, were on the 
watch, and soon the two ropes were hauled tightly up 
around the trees, notwithstanding the jerkiugs and 
writhings of its huge tail. There at last it was, 
lashed fast close to the tree, so that it could only 
wriggle a little — that is to say, its tail. 

Then the armed men came on. They banged and 
beat and clubbed away at the monster, which now lay 
like a rat caught in the snare of a trap ; and it was 
not long before it was quite dead, partly through the 
blows and bruises and partly through the ropes. And 
so it came to pass that it was killed. 

The fame of this great exploit was soon carried 
to all those tribes who had fetched and sent Puraho- 
kura on his errand to Tikitapu. Then they assem- 
bled at the place, and saw with astonishment their 
deadly foe lying on the ground, just like a stranded 
whale on the sea-shore ; even so this noxious monster 
now lay extended before them. Then arose the 
mighty shout of derision from all, both great and 
small. The noise was truly deafening, loud-sounding, 
like that arising from the meeting-together of the 
strong currents of many waters. 

Early the next morning the people arose to their 
work to cut up their fish. Then was to be seen the 
dexterous use of the various sharp cutting instru- 
ments — of the saw made of sharks' teeth, of the sea 
mussel-shells, of the sharp pitchstone knives, of the 


fresh-water musscl-sliells, and of tlie flints. Tnily 
wonderful it was to behold ! Such loads of fat ! Such 
thick eollops ! This was owing- to the cannibal monster 
continually devouring men for its common food at all 
times and seasons. It never knew a time of want or 
a season of scarcity ; it never had any winter ; it was 
always a jolly harvest-time with it. How^ indeed, 
should it have been otherwise, when the companies 
of travellers from this place and from that place were 
continually passing and repassing to and fro ? There- 
fore it came to pass that its huge maw was satiated 
with food — not including the food given to it by its 
master Tangaroamihi — and therefore it came to be 
so very fat. 

So the big fish was cut up. As they went on with 
their work, and got at length into its stomach, there 
the cannibal food which it had devoured was seen. 
There it lay — women, children, men — with their 
garments and their weapons. Some were found 
chopped in two, both men and weapons, no doubt 
through the action of its terrible lips in seizing them ; 
others were swallowed whole, very likely through 
its capacious mouth being kept open, when the strong 
internal blasts from its great gullet drew down the men 
into its stomach. For you must also know that this 
cave is situated near to the water ; so that whenever a 
party came by water, paddling in their canoes to 
Tikitapu, and the canoe came on to the landing-place, 
this monster Kataore, seeing this, came out of its 
cave, and, jumping into the water, took the canoe, 
with the men in it, into its stomach, so that both 
men and canoe were devoured instantaneously. 

The victors worked away until they had taken 
everything out of its big maw, both the goods— 


of clothing and instruments as before — and the dead. 
The dead they buried in a pit. Then they finished 
cutting up that big fish. Some of it they roasted 
and boiled ; and some they rendered down in its own 
fat and preserved in calabashes. And so it came to 
pass that it was all eaten up^ as good food for the 
stomach of man. 

But when the news of this killing was carried to 
the chief Tangaroamihi, to whom this pet saurian 
belonged, and he heard it said to him, '' What is this 
they have done ? Thy pet has been killed ? " the 
chief inquired, "By whom?" and they answered, 
'^ By the tribe of Tama (Ngatitama)." On hearing 
this the heart of Tangaroamihi grew dark with those 
who had destroyed his pet ; and it remained and grew 
to be a root of evil for all the tribes. Thus the story 

Mr. Colenso remarks on this story that the name 
of Tangaroamihi was one highly suited to the event, 
or it might have been given to him at an earlier date 
on account of his having a pet reptile ; that Tangaroa 
was the god of i^eptiles and fishes ; and that mihi 
means to sigh for or lament over any one. 

In weighing the merits of these three very inter- 
esting stories it would be best to take thtm singly, 
so that their individuality may have fair play. First, 
the story of Hotupuku — " Panting Belly," or, for the 
sake of the poetical, we will say " Sighing Heart." 
He is a fcarlul monster, big as a whale, but with 
spines like rows of living spears, and furious lasliing. 
tail. The evidence seems circumstantial enough : 
names of pla( ( .« are given, and names of men towLom 
the Maoris count up, name by name, as to tlcir real 
ancestors. Kaingaj o:i, the place, might mean " Eat 


the long ones " (Imt tlicrc was only one) ; it mi^^lit 
mean "The lonj^ settlement;" hut, ivK'ii»j knowin<^- that 
the INIaoris brought the hatred of the nagas with 
them (naga meaning "great serpent"), is it not 
more likely that the now-forgotten name was once 
Kainagaroa, " Eat the long serpent," or lizard ? The 
great serpent of the early Asiatie nations was always 
the " footed serpent " — the lizard, or crocodile. The 
Hebrews tell of the curse that fell on their great 
serpent on the Tree of Life, as " On thy belly shalt 
thou go," as if it was a very bad thing indeed for him. 
If we pass to the other names, Kapenga may mean 
'' The passing-by," but, taken in connection with the 
story, it is much more likely to once have been " Ka- 
penaga," "Take or catch the naga." The fight itself 
is all that could be wished in a fight ; but then we 
come to the cutting-open, to the finding of the undi- 
gested bodies of all the victims he had eaten, the 
armoury of Aveapons, the different sorts of mats, &c., 
and as the land of myth opens before you, you cry, 
"Our old friend the Dragon. Hotupuku, you are 
the Hindoo dragon Vritra, the Norse dragon Fafnir, 
the Greek snake Python. You, Purahokura, are 
Indra, you are Sigurd, you are Apollo, you are the 
old hero of the nursery, St. George. Your name 
shows that those who used it once knew it as fable." 
Purakau is Maori for an ancient legend,^ kura is the 
sacred colour, purana is (Sk.) for ancient, and 
gaura (Sk.) for yellow, bright, splendid. t 

* Compare the Hindoo purakli, an old man, and puikha, pro- 
genitors, with. (M.) purakau, (1) an old man, (2) a legendary' 

t His name was altered to suit the tellers of the story. 
" Splendid myth " was only an adaptation of the name the old 
cattle-driving Aryans used. Purahokura was once Porahokura, the 
Red Bull of Heaven, the Sun in Taurus. 


In the second legend it is not a naga or a ngarara 
(spined naga) on wliich the courage and skill of these 
heroes have to be displayed : it is a water monster, 
one of the beings the Maoris call "taniwha^' — (Sh-) 
tan, stretched out, and var, water. There is not 
such an atmosphere of terror round this as around 
the great footed snake. The taniwha was the beast 
whose name we keep as Jjexinthan, the water-monster. 
Yet there is something even less terrible about this 
one than about most of them, and it was not alto- 
gether a water-monster. " Where does this monster 
dwell ?^^ The people of the place replied, "It dwells 
in the water, or it dwells on the dry land — who should 
certainly know." And what a stupid, sodden sort of a 
beast, too, to have eaten so many men ! We give, of 
course, their due weight to all the valuable spells uttered 
by the priests ; but this creature lets them dive down 
and put him into a trap, and bind ropes round him, 
whereon he is ignominiously hauled to the surface and 
pummelled to death. Philology now steps in and 
says, " This awful beast, this manslayer full of 
victims and weapons, was only poor little Bheki, the 
frog." Peke, but also Vekehmia — haua the coward ! 
The love of marvel, the mists of antiquity, have given 
poor Pekehaua the bulk of the whale and the tastes 
of the tiger. His wee jumping body, no longer to be 
seen, swelled with every century of story-telling until 
he loomed as large as the wonder of the listeners. 
The scientist will seek the bones of Pekehaua in vain. 

The third monster is different from either of the 
other two. It is a sort of a pet of the chief of the 
place, and he is quite ignorant of its ferocious and 
man-eating proclivities. The heroes do not know 
where to look for it. They try the waters of the lake 
first — the dismal mere, fit abode for the Grimly 


Beast. Even tlio cliarnis of " stitching together "^ 
do not seem to move him, and bring his loatldy forni 
to the light of day. 

They did not seem to like to ask the people of tlio 
settlement abont this creature. Although they tried 
the water it was not because they had ])een told (as of 
Pekehaua) that he lived sometimes on the Avater and 
sometimes on the land. They seemed quite ignorant 
of its habits, and had to try all sorts of spells to 
fetch the monster out of its hiding-place. Then 
comes a terrible roar. This is the first of the three 
of whom it is recorded that it made a noise. Fearful 
as the ngarara was, with his spines and lashing tail, 
he did not seem to appal them with the terrors of 
sound. A roar like the wind in its wrath bending 
the great trees of the forest. A gruesome sound. 
Only the very bravest could go through an ordeal like 
this. But, in spite of the menace conveyed in the 
growl, their next act was to go into the cave, and — 
calmly put ropes round the man-killer. Notwith- 
standing the great eyes shining like moons, they 
securely bound the monster, whose spines and spears 
were quite flaccid. Then comes the pulling and haul- 
ing, the lashing about with the ropes round its middle 
and head, and then, quietness of death as it quits the 
world, and dissection commences — a dissection which 
brings to light the same stage properties which we 
had in the other two stories — the halves and wholes 
of victims, the assortment of different weapons, &c. 

We can only find out what this terrible animal 
was by considering the evidence as to its appear- 

*' Then, in one moment, she put forth the charm 
Of woven paces and of waving hands, 
And in the hollow oak he lay as dead." 

Tennyson — " Idylls of the King." 



ance aud actions. It made a noise witli its moutli, it 
barked and growled, it lived in a dry cave, it rattled 
its rings and leg-circlets. If we allow tliat the rattling 
of the rings was a little poetical aftergrowth on the 
story (because we are not acquainted with any beast 
with bangled legs : even the rattlesnake does not 
rattle his rings on his legs — for reasons) , I think we can 
get a true picture of it. It was a — Does the reader 
know of any creature with ringed stripes on its legs and 
body, whose awful eyes in the darkness of a cave would 
be '^in colour as if clear shining greenstone were gleam- 
ing and scintillating " ? Yes, it was the cat, the last 
poor harmless pussy ever looked upon by Maori eyes, 
invested with the awful legendary terrors that their 
fathers brought with them as the memory of the 
tiger. Will an investigation into names help us here ? 
Yes, and settle the question. In my former paragraph, 
concerning the bull, it may be noticed that one of the 
words which I used to identify him by the way in 
which his name entered into composition was tarore 
(put into a noose) * So, in the word for tiger, taheka 
(in composition, tahe), the word describing his being 
snared is tahere. In a similar way the termination of 
the word catus, the cat, has been made katore, 
signifying the noosed or tied cat. Here it may be 
noticed also that there is another meaning for the 
name of the cat's master. Tlie story has passed from 
mouth to mouth thousands of times : is it not jjossible 
that some slight change might be made by those who 
had no real conception as to the nature of the animal 
•which was the principal figure in it ? Mihi does mean 
to lament ; but there are two words very like it, and 

* The Maori word taura, a rope, is pure taurus, a bull, roping 
or tethering the bull being the Aryan first use for a rop3, and hence, 
taura, the bull-rope. 


only two words at all like it — miharo, to wonder at, 
to admire, and milia, a distant descendant. It is 
trnc that Tangaroa is the god oi' fish, &c. ; but there 
is a word tangare, angry ; roa, long. Tangaroamihi 
would mean " Long angry for the distant descendant." 
That is just what the story describes the old chief as 
being : he was " overcast with gloom " for his poor 
pet, and it was a cause of strife with the tribe who 
owned these heroes. 

How admirably these Maori fairy-tales are narrated ! 
What wealth of detail they lavish on you, from the 
conversations on the journey and the different kinds of 
ropes to the catalogue of weapons and variety of 
clothing ! The struggles of the monsters are depicted 
with lifelike exactitude, and it is only by an exertion 
of common-sense that one can bring himself to the 
belief that such things never could possibly have 

The point of scientific interest in these stories is, 
that it was believed that the Maoris knew nothing of 
certain animals until the coming of the Eurr peans 
among them. That they had no names for them is 
true; that they did not recognize them was certain : 
it would have been an impossibility, because they nor 
their fathers had, probably, seen them for centuries. 
But still they were using words whose sense shows that 
into their composition have been woven the names of 
things once living, while the sight and individual name 
has been lost. 

One thing more to be noticed before quitting the 
subject — the manner of killing. They killed tigers 
with a rope, lizards with a rope, the cat with a rope, 
the frog with a rope. From what I have read of 


most savage races who have to deal with ferocious 
animals, the pitfall, or the heavy suspended arrow, or 
the poisoned bait, are the means they usually employ 
if their missile weapons are not powerful enough to 
kill the big game from a distance. But these men 
fly to the rope and the rope-snare as their first and 
most eiSective weapon. "What wonder, when the roped 
bull was the animal on which they (or their fathers) had 
obtained practice with lazo and noose, used by all 
cattle-raising people. 

Here let me remark in passing that I have been, 
perhaps, in error in using the word " pastoral " several 
times in regard to the Aryans. They were not a 
pastoral people in the sense of being a nomadic 
people, wandering over large spaces with their flocks 
and herds. They might be better described as a 
stock-farming people, who had settled, though scat- 
tered, homes and dwellings, but who lived by rearing 
cattle and sheep — chiefly cattle. 

If my interpretation of the name of the chief who 
was long mournful for his cat is wrong, and it ivas 
Tangaroa, the god of fish and reptiles, who wept for 
his pet lizard, then he was own brother to the Hindu 
Varuna, who was also god of fish and rej)tiles, and 
who rode on the back of a taniwha, bearing in his 
hand a noose, the name of which was " Nagapasa," 
" Binding the Naga " — a singular thing if a mere 
coincidence ; but he is an Aryan deity. Also, that 
the name of the sea-monster on which he rode was 
" Makara," which the Maoris call mango, and mako 
(same word), the shark. 

In passing from the consideration of the killing of 
monsters to the representation of their appearance, I 


must again quote Mr. Colenso. I should feel diffi- 
dence in doing so at such length did I not feel sure 
that he would feci pleasure in extending to all those 
ntorcstcd in the subject the gratification and benefit 
he bestowed on a few by the publication of his writ- 
ings in the " Transactions." 

" It was on the low, undulating grassy banks of the 
River Waitio. There, at that time, was a huge earthwork 
representation of the ngarara or ika — i.e., a lizard or 
crocodile, which, several generations back, had been cut 
and dug and formed in the ground by a chief of that 
time named Rangitauira, who, in doing so, had also 
dexterously availed himself of the natural formation 
of the low alluvial undulations in the earth. It had 
the rude appearance of a huge saurian, extended, with 
its four legs and claws and tail ; but crooked, not 
straight, as if to represent it wriggling or living, and 
not dead. It was many yards in length, and of cor- 
responding width and thickness, and by no means 
badly executed. On two occasions in particular, in 
travelling that way, as we generally rested there on 
the banks of the stream, the old Maori chiefs with 
me would diligently use their tomahawks and wooden 
spears in clearing away the coarse grass and low 
bushes growing on it in its more salient parts, so as 
to keep its outline tolerably clear, reminding me of 
what has been said of the periodical scouring in 

the Vale of the White Horse This 

curious earthwork was called Te Ika-a-Rangitauira — 
that is, that that saurian outline was made or formed 
by a chief whose name was Rangitauira. He was an 
ancestor of Karaitiana, M.H.R., and of several other 
chiefs and sub-tribes now living here in Hawke's Bay. 
He lived nineteen generations back." 

This description is interesting, as showing strongly 


another phase of Maori belief. Max Miiller says 
that, among the Aryans, they first called the blue 
sky Dyaus, then transferred the name to the dwellers 
in that sky, the Dyaus, or Divas, afterwards begetting 
a similar name to the Greek Zeus and the Latin 
Deus. The old chief's name was '' Copy of Heaven," 
or " Pattern of the Sky." What can it mean but 
that he was trying to draw the form of the in- 
habitants of that sky? A lizard is not like the 
sky : it would be a meaningless and foolish tradition 
that would give such a name to the representation of 
a lizard if it were not for some connection with the 
spiritual nature supposed to haunt the saurian shape. 

After the Maori race had left India — perhaps even 
before they finally set out — the feeling of horror 
against the snake and its worshippers deepened slowly 
in Hindustan, first into dread, then into resjaect, 
finally into worship. Their later Trinity always shows 
some one of the three snake-decorated, and Vishnu 
reposes on the vast body, while over him reach the 
thousand hooded heads (bearing the Swastika, or 
mystic cross, on each) of Ananta, the King of the 
Nagas. They had forgotten that intense hatred and 
loathing for the snake-worshippers with which they 
gave to them the Nagasaka, the twenty-eight lowest, 
deepest hells, as their place of residence. Slowly all 
had passed away, even to the other extreme, and we 
read in a speech of Arjuna to Krishna : " I behold 
all the gods in thy body, O God ! and crowds of 
different beings — the lord Brahma on a throne of a 
lotus-cup, and all the Rishis and celestial serpents."* 
Not thus would their fathers have spoken ; nor would 
the Naga have been one of the gods or Devas men- 

Bhagavad-gita (Wilson), p. 77. 


tioncd in the Laliitut Vistara as quo of tlic eight 
heavenly beings. 

This was the aftergrowtli : to the early Aryan, 
watehiiig the stars while guarding his herd on the 
great plains of Asia, the footed serpent was a mystic 
supernatural being, whose constellation hung above 
him, coiling for ever about the central Pole. The 
hatred ot" the naga and its worshijipcrs was evanes- 
cent, and was only the property of that branch of the 
Aryans which had entered India. The western migra- 
tion was free from this dislike, and called Odin the 
great " Snake," as one of his titles. I think that 
this combined horror and respect for the naga is not 
only a proof of the Maori's descent, but a test of the 
time he left India — that is when the rage of which 
Indian writers tell us had died away, assuaged by 
conquest, and the old idea of the supernatural in 
the saurian or ophidian form was resuming its sway. 
So they transmitted to their children the reverential 
dread inspired by the " celestial servient ;" and it 
passed on until Rangitauira carved his " ika " on the 
banks of the Waitio. The Maori, in some dim unde- 
fined way, had a notion that the gods were not 
altogether evil ; but he, by some strange arrest of 
development, remained in the same stage of religious 
dawn he took with him when he left his Aryan 
brothers, just as they were beginning to recognize 
that the blue sky Dyaus contained a Dyaus-pitar, a 
heaven-father, carried into Greece as Zeu-pater, and 
into Rome as Ju-piter. By the Maori of sixty years 
ago, Atua the god was only faintly recognized as 
M'atua the parent. 

Leaving for a time the discussion concerning deities, 
it would be well to notice some of their other beliefs 



and superstitions. There is an old story told by the 
Maoris about what we call the " Man in the Moon.'^ 
It relates that a woman named Rona went out to 
gather sticks by moonlight, but, the moon going 
behind a cloud, she stumbled over a stone, and cursed 
the moon, saying, "Upokokohua V ("Boil your head") . 
Whereupon she was seized by the invisible powers 
and thrown right up to the moon, where, legs 
uppermost, and with the bundle of sticks, she still 
remains. But the marvel is explained when we find 
that Rona up in the moon is the Hindoo goddess 
Eohini, the principal and beloved mate of the god of 
the moon — once Rohini, then Roina, then Rona. 

This curse, uttered by Rona, is written down by 
Mr. Williams in his dictionary as " Pokokohua,^' evi- 
dently the right word, doubtless dictated by some 
ariki, or priest, who knew the hidden meaning. The 
general acceptation of the word as " Upokokohua " 
conveys no idea of its insulting power as understood 
by the Native. A great war, costing much bloodshed, 
once took place in the North from one girl saying it 
to another who was splashing her when bathing. 
Even remembering with what disgust they looked 
upon the idea of being eaten or cooked themselves, 
still, any other way of putting it would be mild com- 
pared with the " Pokokohua.^' The fact is, it is 
another long-remembered survival from the cattle- 
days. It is Pok-o-ko-hua — Egg or fruit of the pig 
and cow : as the pig was an unclean beast, it was just 
like saying " Spawn of filthiness ! " or words to that 

" Tapu," in the sense of religious exercises — (Sk.) 
tapas — has been long known in India : it is what we 
may call the sacred tapu, which was "the divinity 


that cloth hedge " a chief, and rendered all his per- 
sonal belongings sacred to himself. The other form, 
the TUicicau tapu, which made a person unspeakably 
unclean Avho liad touched a skull or broken througli 
any of the many restrictions of the sacre^l tapu, is 
represented by a kindred word in Greek, tapcinos — 
filthy, vile, base. The. peculiar form assumed by tapu 
in New Zealand, after the lapse of so many centuries, 
has features which seem unique and singular; but 
probably it took its most strange aspect only a short 
time before the advent of the Europeans. If, as many 
Maoris say, cannibalism is quite a modern institution 
in this country, then it is likely that the strongest 
forms of the tapu grew up with it for the protection 
of the persons of influential people and of their be- 
longings. But, on the other hand, if eating the bodies 
of slain foemen is an ancient practice, we see signs of 
it in the old mythological Indian story of the god 
Agni (Fire) sharpening his iron tusks as he goes to eat 
the flesh of the foes of the Aryans, the Nagas. And 
" mana," another of their old beliefs, concerning the 
sanctity possessed by chiefs and by weapons that had 
done mighty things, is the " manas " of Sanscrit, the 
mind, the subtle spirit instinct with knowledge and 

It is well known that the fields of the kumara 
(sw^eet potato) were tapu, and that severe punishment 
followed any attempt to steal from them. The women 
working in these cultivations were tapu, and had to 
join in the prayers of the priest for a bountiful crop. 
The tapu w as in the name of the plant, the name of a 
sacred being : their brothers of India gave the name 
" Kumara " to the four sons of Brahma and com- 
panions of Vishnu. 

Let me cite two passages bearing on the very per- 


sistent use of a particular sort of trumpet. The first 
occurs in an account of a battle in which the Kurus, 
a famous fighting branch of the Aryans — (M.) kuru^ a 
blow of the fist — were engaged, the god Krishna fight- 
ing on their side : — 

'' Then, in order to encourage him, the ardent old 
ancestor of the Kurus blew his conch-shell, sounding 

loud as the roar of a lion Krishna blew 

his conch-shell, Panchanjauya; the Despiser of Wealth 
blew the *■ Gift of the Gods ; ' he of dreadful deeds 
and wolfish entrails blew a great trumpet called 
Paundra; King Yudishthira, the son of Kunti, blew 
the ' Eternal Victory,' " &c." 

Now a more modern extract concerning New Zea- 
land : — 

" In some places a smaller trumpet is used in time 
of war. The body of the trumpet is always made of 
a large shell, generally that of a triton, and the mode 
of blowing it differs with the locality." f 

The first quotation is doubly valuable, because it 
notices not only the use of the shell-trumpet, but that 
the Aryans had the habit of naming their weapons 
and property as though each thing possessed a distinct 
personality — giving it a " mana," in fact, exactly as 
the old Maoris did, even with the balers of their 


"The baler (called) Tipuahoronrtku, 
(And) Tipua-hororangi. 
I will carry this my paddle, 
(Called) Kautukiterangi." J 

The Maoris have not lost the ancestral power of 
calling names. 

* "Bhagavad-gita " (Thomson), p. 5. 

t Wood's " Natural History of Man," p. 138. 

X " Nga Tipuna l\Iaori." By Sir George Grey. 


Having seen what sort of legends they told cacli 
other, let ns consider briefly another branch of viva 
voce instruction. In the work from which I have 
already quoted so largely are many proverbs and pro- 
verbial sayings, some of them very beautiful, some of 
them pregnant with wisdom, some hard to understand, 
and I believe only to be understood as references to 
that far-removed mode of existence, and that distant 
land on the other side of the great "Peaks of Himalay." 
I will not repeat those which, from local references, 
&c., have a modern appearance, but only those on 
which I think light can be thrown by the belief in 
the Aryan descent of the Maori : — 

"Na te waewae i kimi :" 

_, , , , C " Obtained by seeking." 
Translated as ] ^ . , „ ,,^ i i. i- i ^.i i >, 
(Literally: Sought tor by the leg. 

Neiv Reading. — Waewae is not only leg, but foot; 

and the literal rendering is " Looked for by the 

feet," the meaning, of course, " tracking " by the 

hoof -marks. 

" Ma te kanohi miromiro :" 

Translation. — " To be found by the sharp-eyed little 

New Reading. — "Miro" has another meaning beside 
that of the name of a bird : it means marks made by 
cattle as they pass along. 

" E rua tan ruru, e rua tau wehe, e rua tau mutu, 
e rua tau kai : " 

Translatioti. — " Two seasons of drought, two 
seasons of scarcity, two seasons of crop-failure, two 
seasons of plenty." 

Meaning — Persevere, keep at it, and success will 

New Reading. — "Two years of the wolf, two year^ 


of going astray^ two years of mutilation^ two years of 
food." Cattle proverb. 

" He kooanga tangata talii, lie ngahuru .puta 
uoa : " 

Translation. — " At planting-time, helpers come 
straggling singly; at harvest, all hands come from- 
everywhere round." Literally, to show its terseness, 
'^ At planting, single-handed; at harvest, all around." 

New Reading. — The word used for "harvest" has a 
different meaning now to what it once had. Ngahuru 
may now mean the harvest, if digging up roots, &c., 
is harvest; but huru is exactly the Gothic ulu, the 
English " wool ;" the word as now used by the Maoris 
being applied to the hair of an animal, the feathers 
of a bird, &c., only because they had lost the sheep. 
Ngahuru, the wools (plural nga), was the sheep- 
harvest, the shearing. To me the proverb runs, 
" At cow-herding one man, at sheep-shearing many." 

A similar one — 

'' Hoa piri ngahuru, taha kee raumati :" 

Translation. — " Friends stick to you in harvest, but 
fall off in summer " — the season of scarcity and 

New Heading. — Substituting wool-shearing for har- 
vest, yes. 

" Taringa muhu kai :" 

Translation. — " Ears on the qui vive for food." 
New Reading. — Yes — the pricked-forward ears of 
a quadruped, not of a man. 

" E wha o ringaringa, e wha o waewae :" 
Translation. — "Thou hast four hands and four 

legs," a word said quietly to a boasting fellow. 

New Reading. — Yes, if he was accustomed to 




" lie kai kora niii tc riri : " 

Translation. — " War (is like) a devouring fire, 
kindled by a spark " (James iii.^ 5) . 

New Reading. — " War is tlic great cow-eater." 

" Kia noho i taku kotore ; kia ngenge te paki- 
hiwi :" 

Translation. — " Be thoii sitting heliind my back, 
and let thy shoulder be weary." A saying f'oi- 
paddling in a canoe. 

Netv Reading. — " Sit on my roped cow : let its 
shoulder be weary." 

' " Me he toroa ngungunu :" 

Translation. — " Like an albatross folding its wings 
up neatly." Used of a neat and compact placing of 
one's flowing mats or garments. 

New Reading. — " Lest the bull bite you." 
Ngungu is to gnaw, and whakangungu to fend 
off (the biting) ; hence the " whakangungurakau, a 
closely-woven mat, worn to defend the person from 
missiles " (Williams) . 

"^ E kimi ana i nga kawai i toro ki tawhiti :" 
Translation. — " (He is) seeking after the tips of 

running branches which extended to a distance." 

Used with reference to any one claiming distant or 

lost relationship. 

New Reading. — " Searching in the pedigrees of 

distant (or ancient) bulls." 

" Rae totara :" 

Translation. — " Forehead as hard as the totara 
wood." Spoken of a liar, and of an unabashed, 
shameless person. Equivalent to our English "brazen- 

New Reading. — " Horned forehead." The tara- 


ma (mentioned before) are the two horns of the 

" Whakawaewae wha :" 

Translation. — " Make (thyself) four legs (first) ." 
Used ironically to a person who boasts of what he 
can do. 

New Reading.- — " Get four legs." '^ Get a beast 
of your own." 

'' I whea koe i te ngahorotangao te rau o te 
kotukutuku :" 

Translation. — Meaning, "Where wert thou in the 
time of work, or of danger?" Literally, "^^ Where 
wert thou in falling of the leaves of the kotukutuku ? " 
This tree [Fuchsia excorticata) is the only one in New 
Zealand which is really deciduous. This proverb may 
also be used for many other purposes, as " When, in 
siege or battle, your tribe or people were killed, where 
were you — absent or hiding ? " Meaning, " Is it meet 
for thee to boast, find fault, or speak?" At such 
times it is a very cutting sarcasm^ often causing 
intense feeling. 

New Reading. — " Where wert thou in the abundance 
of the multitude of crowding cattle ? " (ko-tuketuke) 
— that is, of the cattle-muster, a work both of toil 
and danger, as most colonists know. The leaves of 
the fuchsia fall at a time when food is plentiful, not in 
the hard-working days of spring. 

Perhaps the very best proof of the correctness 
of any theory will be found in the old songs, &c., 
which have been handed down from ancient days. I 
shall reserve for a future work this most important 

* Mr. ColenFo himself translates (in another place) " tara o te 
marama" as "cusps joI the new moon" — what we call the 
^' moon's horns." 


subject. It is one involving too much labour and 
thought to be undertaken without long preparation ; 
and the proofs would be neither apparent to the 
general reader, nor so interesting as to the in- 
dustrious student. I have not at the present 
moment a copy of Sir George Grey's valuable work, 
"Poetry of the Ncav Zealanders/' and it is "out'' 
at the two libraries to which I have access ; but in 
turning over the " Transactions " for the purpose of 
quoting Mr. Colenso's proverbs, I notice one extract 
from an ancient song which he gives in some 
charming chapters upon " The Moa." 

E' muri koe aliiahi ra, 

Tango mai te korero, o namata, 

O nahe rawa, o nga kahika ; 

E, koi runga riro, 

Kei a Kahungunu ; 

Ko te manu hou nei e, te Moa 

Hei tia iho mo taku rangi. 

Translated by Mr. Colenso, — 

Alas ! afterwards do thou in the evening hours 
Produce and begin the tale of old, 
The story of the very earliest times 
Of the great ancient men. 

Thus let it be, begin with the very beginning of all, 
With the chief Kahungunu ; 
So that the bird's plume here present, 
That is to say, of the Moa, 
Shall be stuck into the hair of my principal chief (or beloved 

I bow to Mr. Colenso's translation of the first part, 
until he comes to "the chief Kahungunu," the Maori 
words not implying that it was a chief. 

Alas 1 afterwards do thou in the evening hours 

Produce and begin the talk of old, 

The story of the very earliest times 

Of the great ancient men ; 

Thus let it be with the very beginning of all, 

With the Cow-biters (beef-eaters) ; 

Ere the new bird, the Moa, 

Had shone across my sky. 


It can only be for Maori scholars to decide if my 
interpretation of the last two lines, 

Ko te manu hou nei e, te Moa 
Hei tiaho mo taku rangi, 

is not the correct one. 

With these few examples, I leave a subject which 
will not be exhausted of interest for the next century. 
The proverbs, legends, &c., are always difficult to 
translate, owing to the poetical imagery, intensified 
by slight changes wrought by sjjeakers who, not 
knowing the original meaning, wrested some sound 
slightly to give (as they thought) sense. That any 
relics at all of the old life should be remaining among 
the expressions of an isolated people, in a forest 
country, and unable to see the presence or be re- 
minded of the existence of large quadrupeds, seems 
very marvellous. 




In the introductory portion of my work I alluded 
to tlie community of language^ habits, &c., among the 
light-coloured Polynesians. It is no uncommon thing 
for Europeans not avcII acquainted with the suhject to 
class all the South Sea Islanders as '^ blackfeliows," 
merging the IMaori and Australian, the Samoan and 
the Papuan, in one common term. Even those who 
have more knowledge on the subject have no definite 
idea how sharply the line of demarcation is drawn 
between the Maori race and the Papuan in those 
islands which they inhabit together. Speaking of 
Aneityum, one of the New Hebrides, Mr. Inglis 
says : — 

" The Malay race in these islands speak all one 
language, although they speak a number of dialects ; 
but the inhabitants of each group speak only one 
dialect. On the other hand, the language of the 
Papuans is not only different from that of the Malays,, 
but it is a language broken up into a great number 
of dialects — not fewer, perhaps, than a hundred. Not 
only is there a different dialect on each group, but 
there is a distinct dialect on every island, and some- 
times more than one on the same island, and they are 

rather languages than dialects The 

Papuans occupied these groups of islands long before 
the arrival of the Malays.^^"^ 

* " Dictionary of the Aneitj'umese Language " (Rev. John Inglis), 


A man whose dictum will be accepted by most 
persons as that of a well-known scientist says : " In 
the Malay Archipelago we have an excellent example 
of two absolutely distinct races, which appear to have 
approached each other and intermingled in an un- 
occupied territory at a very recent epoch in the 
history of man.'^* 

Without piling up authorities, I think it may be 
taken for granted that there is a race inhabiting these 
seas differing in language and appearance, and 
probably in descent, from the dark Papuans. The 
question of whence they came is one that has been the 
subject of much discussion. Their traditions name the 
place as Hawaiki or Avaiki. Some have asserted, from 
similarity of name and sound, that Hawaii, in the 
Sandwich Islands, was the original home of the Maori 
race ; some say Savaii, in the Navigator Islands ; 
others mention different places. Putting aside the 
difficulty of arriving here from the eastward South 
Sea islands, on account of the steady wind from the 
•opposite quarter, I believe the evidence gained from 
the natives of these places is final against any such 
theory. When we get to Hawaii we find the natives 
say they came from Hawaii ; at Samoa they say t/iej/ 
came from Savaii ; &c. The whole question seems 
.settled by a phrase used in a work written by a 
resident in Mangaiia. Speaking of Tangiia (another 
Tan " stretched out ''), one of their water-deities, he 
says, " He was regarded as the fourth son of Yatea 
(noon) and Papa (foundation), being one of those who 
accompanied Rangi from Avaiki, the nether world, to 
this upper world of light."t That is the real Avaiki 

* " Malay Archipelago " (Wallace). 

t " Savage Life in Polynesia " (Rev. Mr. Gill). 

TIMK ()!• iMKillATION, ETC. 83 

— the world which sunk behind them at the stern of 
their canoes — dim with distance, but once a real 
existence. Different people put different values upon 
the weight to be attached to Maori tradition : it is 
certain^ if their genealogies arc to be trusted, that 
the canoes bringing them arrived only two or three 
hundred years ago. I believe that those who have 
studied the subject most are unanimous in declaring 
that the Maoris have been in New Zealand very much 
longer ; that, from the very extensive cultivations, 
fortifications, &c., New Zealand gives evidence of being 
once occupied by a very large population at some far 
past time. As to the genealogies, they are doubtless 
trustworthy for some time back ; after that they merge 
into myth. Did not the tribes of Rotorua count 
back to the man who killed Hotupuku, the great 
lizard — that is, to St. George and Apollo ? Did not 
the line of the Heraclidae, ancient Kings of Greece, 
trace back name by name to Hercules ? Our Welsh 
families do the same, back to days before the flood. 
They do not wish to deceive ; but historians must 
receive such evidence doubtfully. Even accepting 
the tradition as correct, the only sailing directions 
from Hawaiki traceable in the legends are, " When 
you go, look at the rising of the star and the sun, and 
keep the prow of jowv canoe to it " {'' Me titiro ki te 
puteuga mai o te whetu, o te ra, me waiho te iho o te 
waka reira ") * This was the course they had steered 
from Asia. 

But they might not have come direct from Asia ? 
They might have lingered for generations on tlie 
way ? Possibly ; but the evidence of language is our 
only guide, and I think that proves that they came 
without long delay. 

* " Nga Tupuna Maori," by Sir George Grey. 


English readers may have remarked that the words 
I liave given as the Maori pronunciation do not 
seem to render the sound at all — that bil (Sk.) is not 
like the Maori pir, &c. But the Maori cannot say 
^^ bil," at all events without long and careful teaching. 
They have to use the sounds they have always heard, 
and new letters seem difficult, not only to speak, but 
to recognize in the voice of another. I have tried 
vainly for a long time to make a Maori say " lady ;" 
he said, " reri.'^ " Lantern " was " ratana," and so 
on. But it is not that the Maori has lost these letters — 
that he has lost the power of saying s, and 1, and b, 
and so forth : his fathers never had them ; nor did 
ours till a later period than the Great Migration. 
Between the first .Veda (the Rig-Veda) and the other 
Vedas, the strong r sound had softened down to an 1. 
G was quite a lately-invented letter, and was introduced 
into Latin by a schoolmaster about 520 (A.U.C.) as a 
form of modified k. Q, as in quis, quatuor, &c., was 
always pronounced as kis, katuor, &c. B and p were 
hardly separated, as shown in the Latin's bibo, I drink, 
where the Greeks, with the same root, said pino. 
S was especially a late sound, (Gr.) kuon and (Lat.) 
canis, a dog, being primary forms, older than (Sk.) 
cuon or svan. V was a late sound, and was once u 
or w. The (Lat.) suo (I sew) is earlier than the (Sk.) 
siv or svi. Our ]Maori word for dog, kuri, is older 
than either. It is still extant in India (in Kol as 
"^ kudri ") . It had the ku of (Gr.) kuon, but added 
was the snarling r, the strong letter, called by the Latins 
" litera canina," " the dog's letter," from which older 
form comes the (Lat.) curro, I run, and (English) cur, 
a dog that runs away. The Maoris have this old strong 
r, never softened to 1 or d. They cannot pronounce 
the sibilant s, that vrus lisped after they left by a 
gentler race. I do not wish to frighten my readers 



■with tabular statcincuts, hut ouc or two examples will 
prove at once the unity of the fair Polynesian races, 
and he useful in noticing if they all possessed the old 
letters or had learnt any of the new, I have taken 
them from places widely separated by distance. 

















































c ono 

















Next let us compare the Maori with the language of 
the Caroline Islands, hundreds of miles north of New 



Caroline Islands. 




























It will be seen on comparison of these words^ and 
still more by comparing a greater number, that 
where the Maori rejoices in the r it has turned in 
the others into 1 and d. The w, as in (M.) waka and 
wai, has softened to v^ as in vaka and vai. The 
^laori kuri is Samoan uli ; (M.) arero is the Samoan 
alelo ; (M.) au is the Samoan asu, the Malay Islands 
iaso. Thus we see that they have the later letters, 


the Samoan and Hawaiian being much more like the 
Maori than the Malay. From the tendency shown by 
these languages, I conclude that, the flood of Arya 
in India pushed outward through the Eastern seas 
in three great pulsations or tidal waves. The first, 
the ISIaori, flowed past the islands of the Archipelago, 
turned by New Caledonia, and, favoured by some tem- 
porary wind from the north or north-west, reached 
New Zealand. They carried the strong " ng " sound 
of a primitive race — said rangi, not langi ; wai, not 
vai. Here they remained, out of the way of the 
main stream, keeping their tongue free from the 
decay of interchange. The next wave went farther 
outwards — north-east to Hawaii, south-east to Tonga 
and Tahiti. They passed not very long after the 
Maoris. Their language has not corrupted by com- 
munication with a later race. The Malays are the 
last of the overflow across the sea — if they had to 
cross the sea. There is great reason to believe that 
the Malay Islands were once part of Asia. An 
authority says : — 

" In the first chapter of this work^" I have stated 
generally the reasons which lead us to conclude that 
the large islands in the western portion of the Archi- 
pelago — Java, Sumatra, and Borneo — as well as the 
Malay peninsula and the Philippine Islands, have been 
recently separated from the continent of Asia. 
Dr. Hooker informs us {" Flora Indica ") , . . 
that many plants found in Ceylon, the Himalayas, 
the Nil-ghiri and Khasia Mountains, are identical 
with those of Java and the Malay peninsula. 
The birds of the Indo-Malay region closely resemble 
those of India.' ^ 

" Malay Archipelago" (Wallace) 


If this be the case, then the Maoris would not 
have so iar to go on leaving Asia, and there is some 
difficulty the less to be faced. Mr. Thomson, writing 
in the *' Transactions,'''^ notices that the Malays call 
the wind from India '' angin barata," Bharata being 
the old name for India. Bharata is generally sup- 
posed to be derived from a king or chief named 
Bharat, and that the Indian Aryans are his descend- 
ants ; but, as the old word for brother was " bharatar," 
it is exceedingly likely that the chief was only a 
genealogical fiction, and that the Bharatas were men 
feeling themselves as brothers ''in a strange land." 
That the word Bharat is an old name is proved by 
the poem " Maha-barata," the great heroic poem of 
India, which recites the deeds of the Aryans, de- 
ati'oyers of the aboriginal inhabitants ; this, though 
not so old as the Vedas, being of extreme antiquity. 
This word was taken by the Maoris on the journey 
towards '' the rising of the sun and star," a father 
in Maugaiia (Cook's Islands) changing the previous 
name of his son to '' Barapu," meaning " West,"t 
India lying in that direction from Mangaiia. The 
''angin bharata," the breeze from the "brother-land,'* 
is represented in Maori by " angi," a gentle wind, 
and "joaraki," a north wind ; also, " parera," a north- 
west wind, which would be the breeze which was 
blowing when they turned and ran down to the 
south-east from New Caledonia. 

It may be safely conceded that if the Maori has 
verbal agreement with Vedic Sanscrit his departure was 
more than three thousand years ago. The historical 
authorities do not agree about the date when the 

• " Whence of the Maori " (Thomson) 
t " Savage Life in Polynesia." 


Vedas were composed, but it appears to have been 
about four thousand years sincCj and as the Sanscrit 
had changed greatly between the first and the other 
three, the Rig Veda was probably composed many 
centuries before.' The Maori has older forms of word 
than the Veda, but that is the oldest work with 
which there is any possibility of comparison. The 
Maori word rangatira is a good examj^le for us to 
consider. The English use the word " man " in two 
senses, one having the sense of (Lat.) homo, a man, 
meaning a human being (and including women and 
children) ; the other the sense of (Lat.) vir, a man, a 
virile man, a male. The Sanscrit word " iauga,'^ a 
man, shows that soft fatal 1, which argues a later 
date than the Maori ranga. Eanga-tira means the 
rayed, shining man, the chief, not the common crowd. 
Strange to say, tscngata, a man, does not come from 
this root ■" ang ;" it does not mean a male exclu- 
sively. In the New Hebrides, takata means women. 
It comes from the (Sk.) tanga, to shout, they being- 
only '^ shouters,^^ or cattle-drovers (male or female), 
not shining chiefs. The (M.) ringa means both hand 
and arm, as waewae means both foot and leg. The 
Malays say lungan, the arm, but tangan, the hand. 
The Maoris have the verb tango, to take in the hand; 
but they had not learnt to call the hand by that 
name. Their word ringa meant " to clasp round,^' 
clutch, embrace ; represented in our sister tongue by 
Ring, to encompass. The word " Nga'^ in " Ngapuhi" 
(a northern Maori tribe) is a shortening of Ngati, a 
common prefix to the name of a tribe or hapu, as in 
Ngatihaua, Ngatitipa, &c. ; and this word, meaning 
descendants of, born of, is the (Lat.) word nati from 
natus, born, spelt in Routledge's Dictionary with the 
old gn, as gnatus — our ^'ng^^ turned. If it should 
be argued that perhaps the Nga here should mean 

riME 01' MIGRATION^ ETC. 89 

Naga-piilii, I answer that the Nagas would never have 
adopted tlic Aryan language (and tlic Maori is Aryan) 
of tlieir hated foes. The Dravirian (aboriginal 
Indian) languages have only a few words resembling 
Maori;, and thc:so have been picked iip by forty cen- 
turies of residence in a land where the Aryan is lord. 
The Dravirian languages have no greater affinity for 
Maori than the Maori has for reptiles. The Malay 
had continual intercourse with the mainland, even if 
not joined to it. Brahmin priests, Buddhist teachers, 
Mahoramedan zealots, have visited him and dwelt 
with him until his language is full of the idioms and 
ideas gained from later Hindustan. Not so the 
Maori : in his island home, off the line of the pre- 
vailing vviuds, he has been keeping the old speech as he 
received it on the plains east of the Caspian Sea. It 
has been asserted lately that the Maoris are children 
of Abraham, &c. They will have to alter almost 
every important word in their language before it can 
be claimed that they are of Semitic parentage. 
Mauris or Moors they arQ not. To find the true 
African language you can search among the Austra- 
lians or the Papvians — the blackfellows and those whom 
the Maoris call "parauri'^ — the children of bondage. 
Many modern men of science believe that there once 
stretched a vast continent or closely-connected chain 
of islands eastward from Africa. Whether it is now 
under the sea, leaving its peaks only (as geologists 
think), will perhaps be known one day, and " Lemu- 
ria"'^ proved to have existed. The presence of a 
race with African resemblances encircles half the 

When the Aryans entered India they are supposed 
to have had weapons of iron, &c. So the poems repre- 

* " Methods and Results of Ethnology " (Huxley). 



sent ; but it may be only that the weapons of a later 
age were transferred to the ancestral hands, Charles 
Kingsley, in his noble description of the setting-out 
of the Aryans from the tribal lands, speaks of " tall, 
bare-limbed men, with stone axes on their shoulders, 
and horn bows at their backs.''* But^ granting even 
that the Aryan Maori once had weapons of iron, he, 
a cattle-farmer, certainly never made them himself, 
but obtained them by barter. When he had sailed 
away to the eastward, as his Norse and Celtic brothers 
were doing to the westward, and arrived in a strange 
country, he would not know how to turn miner to 
extract the ore, but would have, when the precious 
iron weapons wore out, to return to the old stone axe 
his fathers used. The greenstone (jade) axe was a 
precious thing indeed, valuable from its material, 
valuable for the infinite toil expended in shaping it. 
Of this jade, or nephrite, were the ornaments they 
wore. One small piece, which came from the trea- 
sures of the Queen of Oude, and was an ancient relic, 
was shown to a Maori chief then in London, who 
said that in New Zealand it would be of great value. 

It may be urged that the Maoris have shown little of 
that colonizing spirit, of that fire of mind and body, 
which has caused the Aryan race to be the world's 
history-makers for the last four thousand years ; that 
he has not advanced in art or science ; that he has 
no great temples or trophies of art to show as proof 
of descent. But, as I read history, the Aryan race 
has never given birth to magnificent discoveries or 
triumphs of art and literature save when leavened by 
a spirit coming from without. Egypt, the civiliza- 
tion of Babylon and other nations, brought light to 

* " Alton Locke " (0. Kingsley). 


the nearest Aryans — those of Greece ; then, after 
centuries, through the Greek colonies in Italy, Rome 
woke to power, and sent out her missionaries, hrave 
road-makers, steady rulers. But when these were 
mighty nations, Celtic England, Gaulish France, and 
the Gothic tribes were savage as the Maoris were a 
few years back, with ruder customs, more cruel laws, 
fiendish religion. When Britain and the West woke 
to the light, when commerce and education were giving 
us all that the world can give of prosperity, the elder 
daughters of Arya had gone back into the dark, and 
men's eyes could only wistfully look for 

" The glorj' that was Greece, 
The grandeur that was Rome." 

So the turn of each comes, when a leaven from 
without stirs the Aryan blood. By some arrest of 
development the Indo-Polynesians have not waked to 
life — yet. 

It is not quite certain that they have always been 
in the condition in which the voyagers of the last 
century found them. Few people know of the trea- 
sures which await the archseologist in the islands of 
the South Seas — monuments worthy of notice as the 
hieroglyphs of Egypt and Central America, perhaps 
containing treasures as valuable in the eyes of science 
as those lately found at Hissarlik and Mycenae. As 
it might interest the reader to notice some of these, 
I subjoin one or two extracts. Wallace describes the 
crowding palaces and endless ruins of Java at much 
length, but I will confine myself to less known 

" On Aneityum (New Hebrides) there is a large 
system of irrigation, but of an ancient date : long 


canals cut as scientifically as if levels and inclines 
Lad been laid down by tlie surveyor with tbe aid of 
bis tbeodolite. If you ask the natives who made 
these old canals for irrigation^ they tell you they do 
not know ; they suppose they were made by the 
natmases — that is, by the gods, or, in other words, the 
.spirits of their forefathers, which, of course, means 
their forefathers themselves/'"^ The word atmas used 
here is pure Sanscrit for " spirit " {" n " being a 
nominal prefix), and the same idea concerning the 
vast ruins in Java is held by the Javanese. 

Books concerning the Society Islands are so nume- 
rous that I will ask the reader to turn for himself to 
the description of the enormous pyramids there to be 
found, and will pass on to one other place. 

" There are, nevertheless, some peculiarities in 
the character of the Strong Islanders which render 
them capable of civilization in a higher degree than 
most Polynesians. They are a people who have de- 
generated from what must have been in some respects 
a much more prosperous and enlightened state than 
that in which we now find them. A great part of 
their land is covered with ruins of the most massive 
description, built upon a general plan, such as could 
only have been conceived by men of power and intelli- 
gence, acquainted with mechanical appliances for 
raising enormous weights and transporting huge 
blocks of stone considerable distances both by land 
and water. These works, which strike even civilized 
men with astonishment, could only have been effected 
by the labour of thousands of men working in concert 
■ and under command, and they prove, from their 

* Ancityumese Die. (Mr. Inglis). 


aspect and the evident intention of some of them, 
that their bnildcrs must have had at the time of their 
erection some form of settled government and system 
of religion. Many of their customs seem derived 
from some ancient civilization, as the institution of 
kings, high chiefs, and common people, the peculiar 
laws which regulate the intercourse of these castes, 
and the fact that the nobles are considered a sort of 
sacred persons, and hold meetings by night in caverns 
or vaults artificially constructed in the interior of 
some of the great numerous buildings. These people 
associate by means of signs and speech not known to 
the people.""^ After noticing that M. Dumont 
d'Urville fancied, from some old cannon, &c., found 
among the ruins, that this was once the stronghold of 
Spanish buccaneers, the writer resumes : '^ It would 
have taken all the labour of the Spanish pirates, from 
the days of Balboa till now, to build all the monstrous 
works of Strong Island, to say nothing of those that 
exist on Ascension and elsewhere in the neighbour- 

It does not follow as a necessary conclusion that 
these works were executed by the fair Polynesian race 
— they may be relics of those old people of ''Lemuria" 
mentioned previously, or of the Papuans ; but there 
was time enough in the four thousand years succeed- 
ing the migration for a people to have emerged from 
barbarism, built these edifices, and then sunk back 
again to the state in which they now are. That the 
New Zealand Maori has no such ruins is probably 
owing to his having been the first and earliest pioneer, 
and had left before the leaven of advancing civilization 
had commenced to ferment. 

* South Sea Islands Eeport, N. Z. Government (Mr. Sterndals). 



In a work already quoted ("Alton Locke") the de- 
scription o£ the Aryan migration notices the herds of 
cattle guarded by huge, lop-eared mastiffs, heavy 
horned sheep, and silky goats, which attended the 
first movement. It may he asked, why did the 
Maoris call their clothes " kakahu " ( cow or leather) 
when they had wool, and knew how to make it into 
cloth, the word ngahuru signifying the " wool-shear- 
ing," and the (Sk.) ve, to weave, represented by several 
Maori words (see First Part). I have already quoted 
authority to show that the Aryans called their clothes 
'^ cows," although they, too, had the knowledge of the 
sheep, and how to weave its wool. They were not 
always in the same stage of development; but they 
used the old graft-word, showing that once they had 
been clothed in leather : just as the Maoris called 
their mats kahu-kiwi (cow-kiwi or leather-kiwi) or 
kahu-toroa (cow-albatross), though they no longer had 
leather, but wore robes of flax and the feathers (huru = 
wool) of the apteryx and albatross. 

The old Maori dogs, nevermore to be seen by 
mortal eyes (they have all perished, but their hides 
are on the war-cloaks), were the true uncrossed 
descendants of the old cattle-dogs which guarded the 
herds of Arya on the Asiatic plains. Peace to their 
bones ! They had a long and noble pedigree. 

There is a small clump of trees growing in 
Mokau Harbour, on the West Coast of the North 
Island, which are traditionally supposed to have 
spning from the skids or rollers carried by one^ of 
the first canoes (Tainui) which brought the Maoris^to 
New Zealand. It is unlike any other shrub in the 
whole country, and has (so far as we yet know) no 
representative in the islands to the eastward, the 



plant botanically nearest to it being an Australian 
production ; the Maoris probably touching at some 
point on the Australian coast as they sailed down 
from NcAv Caledonia. Its habitat is exceedingly 
circumscribed : it has not in the course of centuries 
spread over many square yards. Here I may 
mention an extraordinary fact bearing on the subject 
of a limited area being the resting-place for ages of a 
particular species. The Hon. Mr. Gladstone noticed 
in the market at Venice a fish which he recognized as 
only being found on the Scottish coasts and in the 
northern European seas. On making inquiries, he 
found that the fish was an inhabitant of the northern 
corner of the Adriatic, near Venice, and of no other 
part of the great Mediterranean Sea. He then 
remembered how Homer and the earliest Greek 
writers related traditions which spoke of the country 
to the north of Italy as the great ocean. Northern 
Europe had not then, perhaps, experienced the geologi- 
cal upheaval which raised it from the sea; and this 
fish was the sole living link with those far-off days 
when there was a passage between the Adriatic and 
the North Sea. If a being possessed of powers of 
locomotion could remain through so many centuries 
within a narrow " habitat," it is easy to see that a 
vegetable production may be also limited exceedingly 
in its area of distribution. 

The manner in which the Maoris have kept their 
words allows reference showing singularly close 
approximation of sound to those of the Teutonic 
branch of Arya. Words resembling English have 
been long noticed, but were supposed to be mere 
chance association of sound, or else words caught from 
the Europeans. Such Anglo-Maori words os paraoa, 
flour ; honi, honey ; karahi, glass, are easily recognizable 



"by the practised ear : I allude only to tlie vocabulary 
used prior to our immigration. A few examples will 


pare, to ward oS. 

topu, a pair. 

tai, the sea. 

papa, a fatlier. 

po, niglit, blackness. 

tete (with whaka), to milk 

nape, to weave. 

waiu, milk. 

ngan, to bite. 

pata, to drop (as water). 

ika, the fish. 

kuri, a dog. 

tari, to wait. 

miri, to rub, grind. 

koti, to cut. 

pure, to remove tapu. 

kete, a basket. 


parry, to ward off. 



papa, father. 

bo-gsy, the demon of darkness. 

nap (of clotli). 


gnaw, to bite. 

patter, to drop (as water). 

hake (Gr.) icthys, (Lat.) (p)isci3. 

cur, a dog. 




pure and purify. 

kit (Gr.) kiste. 


SoTTLey oPthe^ siofThoutuuree 

Thhe-Mystu:^ Gross oro 




My attention was first attracted to this sul)jcct by 
seeing a copy of tlie Treaty of AVaitangi lying open 
npon the table just as I had finished reading a 
description of the remarkable ancient pictures dis- 
covered in a cave of the Weka Pass. I have seen 
many signatures, both of Maoris and Europeans, re- 
presented by " his mark/' but they were mostly the' 
poor and shaky attempts of fingers untrained to guide 
the pen. This was not the case with many of the 
Waitangi signatures. They were the "tohu" (marks) 
of chiefs who each made a fearless sign, full of 
individuality. One signed with the " zigzag " (the 
"lightning-flash'' of symbolism), one with a spiral, 
one with a circle pierced by a stroke, like an arrow 
in a target. It has been said that the chiefs imitated 
their tattoo-marks : if so, some of them had tattoos 
of a very remarkable character, and such as I never 
saw represented. On inquiry I found that men who 
had ])een in New Zealand many years before I came 
held the same idea ; and that such esoteric commu- 
nication was frequent among the fairer Polynesians. 

Dr. Dieffenbach writes : " I was present at one of 
the lessons. An old priest was sitting under a tree, 
and at his feet was a boy, his relative, who listened 
attentively to the repetition of certain words which 
seemed to have no meaning, but which it must have 
required a good memory to retain in their due order. 


At the old toliuuga's side was part of a man's skull 
filled with water. Into this from time to time he 
dipped a green branch, which he moved over the 
boy's head. At my approach the old man smiled, as 
if to say, ' See how clever I am,' and continued his 
abracadabra. I have been assured by the mission- 
aries that many of these prayers have no meaning ; 
but this I am greatly inclined to doubt. The words 
of the prayers are perhaps the remains of a language 
now forgotten ; or, what is more probable, we find 
here what has existed amongst most of the nations of 
antiquity, even the most civilized — viz., that religious 
mysteries were confined to a certain class of men, who 
kept them concealed from the profanwn vulgus, or 
communicated only such portions of them as they 
thought fit." 

AVe have already noticed that the Strong Islanders 
bad such a hidden language, and that their chiefs held 
•^"^ lodges" in subterranean apartments. In Tonga 
the king is a spiritual chief, and a sacred language 
bas to be used in addressing him. The priests of 
Java had an esoteric language called the Kawi, only 
understood by priests. 

Hut it is in the Society Islands that we find 
strongest evidence concerning a secret society, that 
of the Areoi. (Is this from ar, noble, Arya ?) 
" Though they formed a single confraternity through- 
out all the Society group, each island furnished its 
own members. Some writers have likened the society 
to that of Freemasonry. . . . It is not impro- 
bable, however, that on its first foundation the Areoi 
society possessed something of a religious nature. 
When Areois who had been converted to Christianity 
managed to shake ofi: the dread Avith which they con- 


tcmplatcd any reference to the mysteries of their 
society, tlicy all agreed in the main points, though 
differing in details. In the first place the Arcois 
believed in the immortality of the soul and in the 
existence of a heaven suited to their own character. 
Those who rose to high rank in the Areoi society 
were believed after their death to hold corresponding 
rank in their heaven, which they called by the name 
of llohutu noa noa, or Fragrant Paradise. All those 
who entered were restored to the bloom of youth, no 
matter what might be their age." After describing 
that their doctrines and actions were the reverse of 
ascetic, the writer proceeds : " The only redeeming 
point of the Areois was their value in keeping up the 
historical records of the islands. The food and 
clothing which they obtained from the various people 
were repaid by the dramatic performances and recita- 
tions which they gave, and which, debased as they 
were by the licentious element which permeated every 
section of the society, performed towards their local 
history the same part which the ancient mysteries 
performed towards the Christian religion." He then 
relates one of these dramatic stories, one relating to 
Taroa, the father of gods and men. 

" In ages long ' gone by Taroa existed only in the 
form of a vast egg, liuug high in the firmament, en- 
closing in the shell the sun, moon, and stars. After 
floating in aether for ages, he thrust his hands through 
the shell, so that the light of the sun burst upon the 
universe, and illumined the earth beneath him. Then 
Taroa saw the sands of the sea, and cried to them, 
' Sands, come to me and be my companions.' But 
the sands replied, 'We belong to the earth and sea, 
O Taroa, and may not leave them. Come thou down 
to us.' Then he saw the rocks and cliffs, and cried 


to them, ^ RockSj come up to me, and be my com- 
panions/ But the rocks replied, ' We are rooted in 
the earth, O Taroa, and may not leave it. Come 
thou down to us.^ 

" Then Taroa descended and cast off his shell, 
which immediately added itself to the ground, and 
the earth was increased to its present dimensions, 
while the sun and moon shone above. Long did 
Taroa live on the earth, which he jieopled with men 
and women ; and at last the time came when he 
should depart from it. He transformed himself into 
a large canoe, which was filled with islanders, when 
a great storm arose, and suddenly the canoe was 
filled with blood. The islanders with their calabashes 
baled out the blood, which ran to the east and the 
west of the sea ; and ever afterwards the blood of 
Taroa is seen in the clouds which accompany the 
rising and setting sun, and, as of old, tinges the 
waves with red. 

*' When the canoe came to land it was but the 
skeleton of Taroa, which was laid on the ground with 
its face downwards ; and from that time all the houses 
of the gods have been built on the model of Taroa's 
skeleton, the thatched roofs representing the back- 
bone, and the posts the ribs.^''^ 

This legend is but a corruption of the old Hindu 
myth of the Creation by Brahma. The Satapatha 
Brahmana recites that the Great Soul made the 
waters and placed therein a seed. This became a 
golden egg, from which he himself, as Brahma, was 
born. The earth then " was only a span long." 

* Nat. Hist, of :\Ian (Wood), p. 425. 


The blood in tlic canoe was a reminiscence of the 
bright-red colour Avitli whicli Brahma was always 
represented. Thus we sec that knowledge of the 
Hindu traditions was associated with some of the 
Polynesian folk-lore. That the Maoris had also some 
memories of India it is impossible to doubt v/hen 
looking at the rock-paintings of the Wcka Pass. 
The picture is a rude but vivid representation of the 
first Avatar of Vishnu, and known as " Matsya, the 
Fish." The god became incarnate in order to save 
Manu (our Polynesian Maui) from destruction by the 
Deluge. " A small fish came into the hands of Manu, 
and besought his protection. He carefully guarded 
it, and it grew rapidly until nothing but the ocean 
could contain it. Manu then recognized its divinity, 
and worshipped the deity Vishnu, thus incarnate. 
The god apprised Manu of the approaching cataclysm, 
and bade him prepare for it. When it came Manu 
embarked in a ship, with the Risliis and with the 
seeds of all existing things. Vishnu then appeared 
as the fish, with a most stupendous horn. The ship 
was bound to this horn with the great serpent as with 
a rope, and v,'as secured to this horn until the waters 
had subsided.""^ 

Thus the Asiatic story. There in the Weka 
paintings are the ark, the land and sea creatures, and 
the fish with the great horns, drawn as the early 
Aryans would draw, with bulls' horns. The smaller 
drawing only represents a bull looked at from above- 
drawn '^ in plan." The great fish is Te-Ika-a-Maui, 
New Zealand's Maori name. Manu was, like Maui, 
the first man. He was the youngest of seven 
brothers (mere shadows), as was Maui. The New 

* Hindu Clas. Die. 


Zealand Maui is called Maui Potiki (Baby Maui) , and 
Hindu mothers call their babies *' potra/' as English 
mothers call theirs '' pet/' and " poppet " (French, 
petit), from the same ancient word-root, pot. 

Another evidence of the presence of relics of Hin- 
dustan in New Zealand is that of the Tamil bell. 
Part of an ancient bell was found in the North, bear- 
ing an old inscription, a copy of which inscription was 
in India pronounced to be in the ancient Tamil, the 
language of Ceylon. It read as " Mohammed Buks, 
ship's bell." This would seem to argue the presence 
of those indefatigable priests of Buddha, who pushed 
their way into every corner of the eastern world, 
reaching even the dwellers in the American cities. 

However the question may be solved as to visitors 
from India at a later date, it is almost certain that 
the Maoris generally never accej)ted their faith, or 
disturbed their general tenor of life by an adhesion 
to the later forms of worship. When they left, they 
knew of few deities. The Aryan " Dyaus " had 
grown to the Greek Zeu-s, the Celtic Ju, the Latin 
Ju-piter, the Teutonic Tin, the Maori Tu. Besides 
these, the Maori recognized Agni (or Ahi,) the sacred 
fire ; Vainina (Tangaroa) , the god of the waters ; and 
Vayu (Han), the wind. These, tempered by dread and 
growing reverence for the Snake of Evil, were his 
chief heavenly beings. The Hindu deities, Brahma 
and Vishnu, Siva, Indra, Soma, and others, grew up 
(I believe) after his departure, and any reference to 
them has been brought by later visitors. 

"We can only find out the real facts by collecting 
carefully and examining diligently those fragments of 
old songs, incantations, &c., which are the relics of 


the hidden language. If tlicre was a secret revealed 
only to the arikis (perhaps not even to the tohungas, 
the ordinary priests), I imagine it -will be found to be, 
that in those old songs, &c., were allusions to the 
golden land which their fathers left ; that words com- 
monly used had a deeper meaning, conveying the 
knowledge of the fountain-head of their race in "the 
Land of Cows " — strange beneficent creatures which 
their ancestors had tended; strange malevolent creatures 
which had been as terrors in the path. All these memo- 
ries were probably embalmed in the graft- words of tliat 
language ; of which, perhaps, the ordinary Maori now 
knows less than any. 

If any one believes that this race is inferior to the 
average European in appearance or beauty, he has 
travelled little. The degraded Natives who hang 
about our towns have little of the appearance or the 
character of the true Maori. Among the tribes are 
noble specimens of the human race. The visitors 
to Hawaii and Samoa grow absolutely crazy (if their 
books are any tests) over the beauty of the women. 
The ordinary European who counts in his ranks tlic 
Bengalee, the Savoyard, and the Portuguese as Aryans, 
need not blush to own his brotherhood with the 
beauties of Hawaii or the heroes of Orakau. 



I HxVVE hasted to make my discovery known, that I 
might get helpers in the work. Until some one has 
found the path, the efforts of the many will be futile; 
but, once found, it becomes a highway for the feet 
of men. 

This book contains, doubtless, some slight errors 
in detail; yet I feel proud to have written it. Not 
yet have I seen one shadow of disproof as I went on; 
eveiy step has confirmed and strengthened the one 
preceding, until I feel so assured of the truth of my 
Aiew of the " origin of the Maori race " that, if not 
one man in New Zealand agreed with me, I could 
wait with calm confidence for the verdict of the Euro- 
pean scholars. I have been the first to apply the 
scientific method to the Maori language, and to prove 
the fellowship of the Polynesian with the races of 
Europe. Some have guessed and asserted (without 
any conAincing proof) that the Maoris came from 
India {See AjjjDendix), others that they came from 
Africa, others that they came from America or the 
South Sea Islands. The man who has read this 
book, if not ossified by prejudice, is a man convinced, 
and a future fellow-labourer. 

The mind grows weary as it tries to fly across a 
field of time so vast as that which separates us from 
the parting of the Aryan race at the Great Migration. 


The story oC our British struggles along the pathway 
to liberty, our strife with Norman, Dane, and Pict, are 
hut things oC yesterday. When Alexander the Great, 
of Maeedon, was pushing his way towards the east, 
centuries before the Christian era, Sanscrit was first 
being written in its character ; behind his occupation 
of Greece stretch the glorious days of the ancestors of 
those who talked with Plato in the groves of Academe, 
back to the mighty princes of the Trojan war and 
heroes whose names are hoar with antiquity. But 
behind these again are the centuries of myth, of 
Perseus and Andromeda, of Theseus and the Minotaur, 
till, at last, under an historical darkness which no eye 
can pierce, are the days when the fierce Aryans were 
fighting their way through forest, through river, and 
through the strong aboriginal tribes, into the eternal 
stronghold of the Pelasgic races. So, too, passed 
towards the south our Indian and Maori Aryans, 
driving back the aborigines, always finding fresh and 
varied scenes of action. On a new element they 
were the same brave hearts as on the wide Asiatic 
plains. Left behind was the pleasant land of cattle and 
the lowing herds. No freebooting Huns or Vandals, 
mad for plunder and the sack of towns, were they, but 
colonists seeking new homes beneath strange stars. 
We of Europe have set out on the same quest. En- 
circling Africa, the two vast horns of the Great 
Migration have touched again; and men whose fathers 
were brothers on the other side of those gulfs of 
distance and of time meet each other, when the 
Aryan of the West greets the Aryan of the Eastern 




Mr. Thomson^ in his article on " Barata Words " 
(Transactions), expressed his opinion that the Maoris 
came from India, he having found analogies between 
Maori words and some of those in the Central and 
Southern Indian dialects. Unfortunately, he threw 
investigators off the track (myself for a long time, 
and, doubtless, others) by the following passage : — 

" In my researches I have had to scrutinize the 
Sanscrit terms, several of the Asiatic and African- 
Arabic dialects. Bask, Finnic, Magyar, Turkish, 
Circassian, Georgian, Mongolian, Muntshu, and 
Japanese languages, without finding analogies J' 

It would take a clever philologist, and one deeply 
skilled in the most primitive word-roots, to find any 
analogies between Maori and Basque, Magyar, Turkish, 
&c. ; but the many Sanscrit words quoted in this 
book show how close the affinity is with Maori. There 
are plenty of kindred forms in Hindustani ; but the 
language of Southern India has only its mixture of 
decayed Sanscrit with Dravirian and other corruptions 
from which to cull any analogies with Maori. The 
!Maoris did not " come from India,'' they came through 

I may mention here that Max Miiller, speaking 
of ar and rik being interchangeable as old roots for 

Al'PKNDlX. 107 

^' north," quotes the (ireck word Arktos, the Great 
Bear, as containing both. The (M.) word raki has 
one, the (M.) tuariki lias both. When the Maoris 
lost sight of the sacred constellation, the Great Bear, 
the E,iki (seven stars — seven Rishis) , they still held in 
view the northern Pleiades, and called them Matariki 
(eyes of the Rikis). 

"Wellington : Geoege Didsbuby, Government Printer.— 1885. 

lIL'.Ollim lUJHIM'jrjAI I lI'.HAHt' [AI.IIIH 


AA 000 873 482 4